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Read Me What to read, 1851-1875

\/ 1826-1850 | 1876-1900 /\

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\/ Later Mid-19th Century

We should never cease to be readers; pure readers, reading not to learn, or for an ulterior motive, but for the joy of reading itself. --Charles Peguy

Rainer Maria RILKE (1875-1926) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Poem Hunter Reference: Petri Liukkonen biographyCriticism: post
Note: a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist... writing in both verse and highly lyrical prose. --Wikipedia
And Rilke whom die Dinge bless / The Santa Claus of loneliness. --W. H. Auden
New Poems: First Part and Other Part (Neue Gedichte, 1907)
The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge (Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge, 1910)
Duino Elegies (Duineser Elegien, 1922)
One star: Sonnets to Orpheus (Die Sonette an Orpheus, 1922)
Selected Poetry (anthology, 1989)
Rilke lead to my discovery of German as a language in which modern poetry can be written, admiration for subdued elegance of form and economy of linguistic means, and for the languid subtlety of the message. --Thor Sevcenko
Four poems (Martin Greenberg translation) Etext: The New Criterion (March 2001)

Antonio MACHADO (1875-1939) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98. --Wikipedia
Juan de Mairena (1936)
Mairena, and his teacher Abel Martin, are two of the thirteen 'doubles' invented by Machado to explore a variety of viewpoints and attitudes, philosophies and modes of feeling. --Philip Ward
Selected Poems (1982) Etext: Poem Hunter | A. S. Kline translation

Gilbert N. LEWIS (1875-1946) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs --Wikipedia
Valence and the Structure of Atoms and Molecules (1923)

Thomas MANN (1875-1955) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography Criticism: post
Note: a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist --Wikipedia
Comment: The 20th-century Goethe (pocket edition) --Dwight Macdonald
Buddenbrooks (1901)
...Mann's dominant theme is not the family itself, as it was in Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga, but the alienation of the artist in society and the contrast of emotionalism and intellectualism. --Philip Ward
Death in Venice (Der Tod in Venedig, 1912)
Masterly novella of a civilized artist at the end of his genteel tether. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg, 1924)
...Mann's ironic diagnosis of the diseases which brought imperial Europe down... --William Alfred
Comment: A very long time ago, when I was a teenager, I liked to think of myself as a future historian of culture. I read The Magic Mountain and said to myself, 'Now THAT is for you.' --Saul Bellow
Tonio Kroger (1929)
Mario and the Magician (Mario und der Zauberer, 1930)
Stories of Three Decades (Gesammelte Novellen, 1936)
One star: Joseph and His Brothers (Joseph und seine Bruder, 1933-1943)
Note: The Tales of Jacob (Die Geschichten Jaakobs, 1933); The Young Joseph (Der junge Joseph, 1934); Joseph in Egypt (Joseph in Agypten, 1936); Joseph the Provider (Joseph, der Ernahrer, 1943) --ed.
Joseph and His Brethren is a monumental 'recovery' of ancient Palestine and Egypt, badged with ingenious research and psychological slyness. --Raphael and McLeish
Mann provides the philosophical insights into human experience in their most palatable form. --John D. Montgomery
Comment: It rejoices because there is nothing new under the sun; because fathers and sons have forever been what they are today; and because, when a father has a favorite son, and says so, he is committing an error so ancient that nobody can remember when the consequences were not thus and so. --Mark Van Doren
Doctor Faustus (Doktor Faustus, 1947)
Comment: the life of a fictional composer, Adrian Leverkuhn, who makes a Faustian compact with the Devil and rises to unholy prominence. --John Simon
A brilliant commentary, in fictional form, on German Culture--its great achievements and deadly disease. --Bernard Bailyn
The Confessions of Felix Krull, Confidence Man (Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull, 1954)
a marvellous work of old age, unfinished but sappy with iconoclastic vigour. --Raphael and McLeish
Banquet Speech (December 10, 1929) Etext: Nobel Prize

Carl JUNG (1875-1961) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Times Topics
Note: a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology. --Wikipedia
For a reader accustomed to the elegance and coherence of Freud's style, or indeed to the clean lines of good English prose, a few pages of Jung can be a discouraging experience. --Philip Rieff
To cure, in the Jungian theory, is to give the patient peace in adhering to the eternal order, replicated within him symbolically. --Philip Rieff
Psychological Types (1921)
Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1963)
Jung writes with the excitement of a detective, the skill of an artist, and the flair of a mystic as he develops a new vision of the human personality. --John Kao

Albert SCHWEITZER (1875-1965) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German—and later French—theologian, organist, philosopher, physician, and medical missionary in Africa, also known for his interpretive life of Jesus. --Wikipedia
In 1913, Schweitzer founded his tropical hospital in Lambarene (Gabon), and broadened his Christianity by the study of Schopenhauer and Indian philosophy. --Philip Ward
On the Edge of the Primeval Forest (Zwischen Wasser und Urwald, 1922)
Out of My Mind and Thought (Aus Meinem Leben und Denken, 1931)
More from the Primeval Forest (Mitteilungen aus Lambarene, 1931)

Trumbull STICKNEY (1874-1904) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation
Note: an American classical scholar and poet. --Wikipedia
Poems (1905)

Hugo von HOFMANNSTHAL (1874-1929) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: see Hermann Broch biography
Note: an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. --Wikipedia
One star: Selected Writings: Prose, Plays and Libretti, Poems and Verse Plays (3 vols. 1952-63)
Achieving miraculous poems at a precocious age, Hofmannsthal suddenly saw the disunity and incoherence behind what he had considered unity and coherence and found bitterness in the collapse of the old order in Europe. --Philip Ward

G. K. CHESTERTON (1874-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Martin Ward fan site Reference: Criticism: post
Note: an English writer, lay theologian, poet, dramatist, journalist, orator, literary and art critic, biographer, and Christian apologist. --Wikipedia
The Napolean of Notting Hill (1904)
Chesterton's tale of brilliant banners, quixotic but bloody struggles, and bafflingly poetic dialogues focuses on the romance and potential dynamism of little neighborhoods. --Carney Gavin
One star: The Man Who Was Thursday (1907)
the story of how the poet (and secret agent) Gabriel Syme tricks his way onto the elite General Council of Anarchists of Europe, a group that plans nothing less than the destruction of civilization. --Michael Dirda
Orthodoxy (1908)
The master of paradox demonstrates that nothing is more 'original' and 'new' than Christian tradition. --The Intercollegiate Review
How to look at the Christian tradition with fresh eyes. --John O'Sullivan
The Everlasting Man (1925)
A great carillonade of Christian verities. --John Lukacs
Collected Poems (1926)
One star: Father Brown Omnibus (1929)
Chesterton intended to ridicule the analytical and scientific methods of the Sherlock Holmes school of detection by showing that crime is related to sin, and a priest's intuition is more necessary in discovering a sinner than is a policeman's experience in discovering a criminal. --Philip Ward
The Need of a Philosophy (March 7, 1923) Etext: The Philosopher (1923)
Inaugural Address of the Philosophical Society (June 2, 1926) Etext: The Philosopher (July-September 1927)
St. Thomas Aquinas Etext: The Spectator (February 27, 1932)
The Surprise (1952) Bookseller: EWTN (DVD)

Karl KRAUS (1874-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Clive James essay
Note: an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet. --Wikipedia
The Last Days of Mankind (Die letzten Tage der Menschheit 1919)

Gertrude STEIN (1874-1946) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: post
Note: an American writer of novels, poetry and plays that eschewed the narrative, linear, and temporal conventions of 19th-century literature, and a fervent collector of Modernist art. --Wikipedia
Three Lives (1909)
In 'Melanctha', about a black woman, Stein showed for the first (and last?) time just how well she could write fiction. --Raphael and McLeish
Tender Buttons (1914)
The Making of Americans (1925)
The Geographical History of America or The Relation of Human Nature to the Human Mind (1936)

Robert FROST (1874-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: post
Note: an American poet. He is highly regarded for his realistic depictions of rural life and his command of American colloquial speech. --Wikipedia
New England in literature is always stark and grim, but Mr. Frost is not an implacable realist; the grimness is there, but with it a tenderness of one who sees deeply into this phase of life because he has lived it. --Jessie B. Rittenhouse
Two stars: Collected Poems (1931) Criticism: Ernest Suarez review | Amy Lowell review of 'North of Boston'
Frost's work has the sweetness, sharpness and freshness of an apple; he is the most accessible and readable great poet of this [20th] century. --Raphael and McLeish

Charles A. BEARD (1874-1948) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century. ... His works included a radical re-evaluation of the founding fathers of the United States, who he believed were motivated more by economics than by philosophical principles. --Wikipedia
The Supreme Court and the Constitution (1912)
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (2013) Criticism: J. Gordon Hylton post
Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915)
The Economic Basis of Politics (1922)

W. Somerset MAUGHAM (1874-1965) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a British playwright, novelist and short story writer. --Wikipedia
Of Human Bondage (1915)
This novel about the torments of misdirected love revealed to me how prone we are to form irrational attachments which hold us in their grip, even while we know that our sense of self--life itself--is being undermined. --John E. Mack
The Moon and Sixpence (1919)
The Complete Short Stories (1951)
Man of the world stuff, cynical and anecdotal. --Raphael and McLeish

Alfred JARRY (1873-1907) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French symbolist writer best known for coining the term and philosophical concept of 'pataphysics' --Wikipedia
Selected Works (1965)
Note: mainly known as the creator of the grotesque and wild satirical farce Ubu roi (1896; “King Ubu”), which was a forerunner of the Theatre of the Absurd. --Encyclopaedia Britannica

Charles PEGUY (1873-1914) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Roger Kimball essay
Note: a noted French poet, essayist, and editor born in Orléans. His two main philosophies were socialism and nationalism, but by 1908 at the latest, after years of uneasy agnosticism, he had become a devout but non-practicing Roman Catholic. --Wikipedia
The Mystery of the Charity of Joan of Arc (Le mystere de la charite de Jeanne d'Arc, 1910) Criticism: Benedict XVI address

Hayim Nahman BIALIK (1873-1934) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter
Note: also Chaim or Haim, was a Jewish poet who wrote primarily in Hebrew but also in Yiddish. Bialik was one of the pioneers of modern Hebrew poetry and came to be recognized as Israel's national poet. --Wikipedia
Kithve (selected works 1926-1938)
Shirot Bialik: The Epic Poem (1998)

Ford Madox FORD (1873-1939) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Ford Madox Ford Society Criticism: post
Note: an English novelist, poet, critic and editor --Wikipedia
One star: The Good Soldier (1915)
The practiced arts of civility among educated people are an important manifestation of the gentle nature of the human spirit. ...they can also be used as cover by those whose morality has been eroded by passion. --David M. Livingston
One star: Parade's End (Some Do Not ... (1924); No More Parades (1925); A Man Could Stand Up — (1926); Last Post [U.S.: The Last Post] (1928)
the collapse of English society during the Great War has never been more passionately depicted than in this touching account of marriage and betrayal among the upper middle classes. --Raphael and McLeish

Ellen GLASGOW (1873-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page
Barren Ground (1925)
Vein of Iron (1935)

Willa CATHER (1873-1947) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Willa Cather Foundation Criticism: post
Note: an American author who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains --Wikipedia
Alexander’s Bridge (1912)
Comment: Bartley [Alexander] is a bridge builder, and bridges serve important symbolic functions in the novel. --Grant L. Voth
The Song of the Lark (1915)
The story of an ambitious girl from middle America who will not be silenced either by lack of opportunity or the prejudice of family and neighbors. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: My Antonia (1918)
The only thing I ever read that helped me understand why people like the midwest. --Avis C. Vidal
One star: A Lost Lady (1923)
Might one just say it is among the most perfect short novels in our language, and that its tale of the courtly and beautiful overwhelmed by venality and corruption breaks our heart? --Michael Dirda
The Professor's House (1925)
One star: Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927)
The most serenely beautiful of her books, it seems scarcely a novel at all, more a kind of New World pastoral, evoking the beauty of the desert Southwest, lamenting the passing of traditional Native culture, and glorifying the lives of two saintly Catholic missionaries as they spread the faith in a harsh land. --Michael Dirda
Shadows on the Rock (1931)

Mariano AZUELA (1873-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Underdogs (1916) Etext: Gutenberg

COLETTE (1873-1954) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Terry Castle review
Note: the surname of the French novelist and performer Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette ... . She is best known for her novel Gigi, upon which Lerner and Loewe based the stage and film musical comedies of the same title. --Wikipedia
Retreat from Love (La Retraite Sentimental, 1907)
Break of Day (La naissance du jour, 1928)
Collected Stories (1983)

Walter DE LA MARE (1873-1956) Etext: The Online Books Page
One star: Memoirs of a Midget (1921)
this long novel offers the partial autobiography of Miss M.--no full name is ever given--who, at least physically, never grows up. --Michael Dirda
Collected Poems (1979)

Mikhail KUZMIN (1872-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter | Poetry Lovers Page
Note: a Russian poet, musician and novelist, a prominent contributor to the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. --Wikipedia
Alexandrian Songs (1906)

TOSON Shimazaki (1872-1943) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: the pen-name of Shimazaki Haruki, a Japanese author, active in the Meiji, Taisho and early Showa periods ... went on to establish himself as a major proponent of naturalism in Japanese fiction --Wikipedia
The Broken Commandment (Hakai, 1906)

Pio BAROJA (1872-1956) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Restlessness of Shanti Andia (1911)

Max BEERBOHM (1872-1956) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English essayist, parodist, and caricaturist --Wikipedia
One star: Zuleika Dobson; or, An Oxford Love Story (1911)
A Christmas Garland (1912)
Comment: a caricaturist in prose as well as with a pencil (his drawings are as admired as his writing), able to mimic, guy, and skewer any author's style, any eminent personage's pretentions. --Michael Dirda
One star: Seven Men (1919; enlarged edition as Seven Men, and Two Others, 1950)
Selected Essays (1958)

John Cowper POWYS (1872-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a British novelist and lecturer. --Wikipedia
Wolf Solent (1929)
A Glastonbury Romance (1933)
Mythopoeic grandiloquence--the Holy Grail is the theme ofA Glastonbury Romance--renders him suspect in circles happier with understatement; but his force and vision are undeniable. --Raphael and McLeish

Bertrand RUSSELL (1872-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic. --Wikipedia
Recent Work on the Principles of Mathematics, International Monthly, 4, (1901) 83-101,
reprinted as "Mathematics and the Metaphysicians" in Mysticism and Logic
A Study of Mathematics (1902)
The Problems of Philosophy (1911) Etext: Digital Text International
One of the first books commissioned for the 'Home University Library', in which Russell outlines proposed solutions as well as problems. ...excellent introduction to academic philosophy. --Raphael and McLeish
The Place of Science in a Liberal Education (1913)
The World of Physics and the World of Sense (in Our Knowledge of the External World 1914)
Note: Delivered as Lowell lectures in Boston, in March and April, 1914
The Theory of Continuity (in Our Knowledge of the External World 1914)
Note: Delivered as Lowell lectures in Boston, in March and April, 1914
The Problem of Infinity Considered Historically (in Our Knowledge of the External World 1914)
Note: Delivered as Lowell lectures in Boston, in March and April, 1914
On the Notion of Cause (in Mysticism and Logic)
Mysticism and Logic (1918)
One star: An Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919)
Here the derivation of classical mathematics from logic and set theory is carried through in strict formal logic. --Willard V. Quine
The Analysis of Mind (1921)
What I Believe (1925)
Selected Papers (1927)
Sceptical Essays (1928)
The Aims of Education (1929)
Marriage and Morals (1929)
The Conquest of Happiness(1930)
Religion and Science (1935)
History of Western Philosophy (1946)
Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (1948)
Unpopular Essays (1950)
Science and Tradition (in The Impact of Science on Socitey 1951)
Human Society in Ethics and Politics (1954)
My Philosophical Development (1956)
See collaboration with Alfred North Whitehead
Philosophical Consequences Of Relativity (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 13th Ed. 1926) Etext: Sterf [pdf]

Stephen CRANE (1871-1900) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Stephen Crane Society
Note: an American author. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism. --Wikipedia
One star: The Red Badge of Courage (1895) Etext: American Literature Library | Online Literature Library | Robert Stockton fan site
Stories and Poems

John Millington SYNGE (1871-1909) Etext: The Online Books Page
His work is all of a piece, rammed with vitality, and, for all of Synge's own iron reserve, it has extraordinary emotional range. --John V. Kelleher
The Playboy of the Western World (1907)
Magical Irishness, about a stranger arriving at a remote Mayo inn (the Iceman cometh?); whimsical surface with skeleton of steel. --Raphael and McLeish

Leonid ANDREYEV (1871-1919) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Eugene M. Kayden essay
The Seven Who Were Hanged (1908)

Marcel PROUST (1871-1922) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Chris Taylor fan site Criticism: Michael Wood essay | post
Note: a French novelist, critic, and essayist --Wikipedia
The Lemoine Affair (2008 Charlotte Mandell translation; Le Figaro January 1904, February-March 1908; Pastiches et Malnages 1918)
Comment: pastiches other French literary giants, including Balzac and Flaubert, who each "write" a chapter in response to an actual French scandal in which the con-artist Lemoine duped investors (including Proust) into believing he could make diamonds from coal. --Emily Allen
Three stars: Remembrance of Things Past or In Search of Lost Time (A la recherche du temps perdu, 1913-27) Reference: Wikipedia on translations Criticism: Edmund Wilson review Humor: Stephan Pastis comic strip
The interest of the book lies in each fragment. We can open it wherever we choose. --Paul Valery, funerary tribute in La Nouvelle Revue Francais
The more perfectly you grasp what you and I are like and how we fit in, the more it seems our next and contradictory selves wait around the corner in a world turned upside down. --Duncan Kennedy
seems the product of total recall, and yet how selective it had to be. --Ralph McInerney
This novel is 4,000 pages long, yet nothing ever happens. Is Proust making some kind of veiled comment about French society? --Joe Queenan

Ernest RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: John Campbell fan site
Note: a New Zealand-born physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. --Wikipedia
Radio-activity (1904)
Radioactive Substances and Their Radiations (1913)
Radiations from Radioactive Substances (with James Chadwick and C.D. Ellis, 1930)
Note: Sir James Chadwick ... was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. --Wikipedia
Note: Sir Charles Drummond Ellis ... was an English physicist and scientific administrator. His work on the magnetic spectrum of the beta-rays helped to develop a better understanding of nuclear structure. --Wikipedia

Walter Bradford CANNON (1871-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School. He coined the term fight or flight response, and he expanded on Claude Bernard's concept of homeostasis. --Wikipedia
The Wisdom of the Body (1932)

Theodore DREISER (1871-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
One star: Sister Carrie (1900)
One star: An American Tragedy (1925)
Earnest anger makes his social-climber hero's 'murder' of his working class fiancee a 'tragedy' of sentimental ruthlessness in the heyday of rugged individualism. --Raphael and McLeish
We see a vapid but not really evil little soul becoming, by easy steps, blood-guilty; it is almost as horrible as watching a vivisection... --Robert P. Duffus

Paul VALERY (1871-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter Reference: Academy of American Poets Criticism: post
Note: a French poet, essayist, and philosopher. ... his interests included aphorisms on art, history, letters, music, and current events --Wikipedia
Selected Writings (1950)
The Art of Poetry (Collected Works, Vol. 7, 1958)

John Alexander HAMMERTON (1871-1949)
Outline of Great Books (Editor, 1937) Etext: The Online Books Page | Squashed Writers
Note: described by the Dictionary of National Biography as "the most successful creator of large-scale works of reference that Britain has known". --Wikipedia
...inspiring if sadly dated... --Philip Ward

Comment: Think of all the wonderful tales that have been told, and well told, which you will never know. Think of all the searching inquiries into matters of great consequence which you will never pursue. --Winston Churchill

Frank NORRIS (1870-1902) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Octopus (1901)

SAKI (H. H. Munro, 1870-1916) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
The Short Stories (1930)
Justice is frequently meted out when it is least expected, and a sense of humor leavens almost all situations. --Mary V. Chatfield

Alexander BERKMAN (1870-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an anarchist known for his political activism and writing. He was a leading member of the anarchist movement in the early 20th century. --Wikipedia
Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist (1912)

Alexander Ivanovich KUPRIN (1870-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Garnet Bracelet (1911)

Jean Baptiste PERRIN (1870-1942) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French physicist who, in his studies of the Brownian motion of minute particles suspended in liquids, verified Albert Einstein’s explanation of this phenomenon and thereby confirmed the atomic nature of matter. For this achievement he was honoured with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1926. --Wikipedia
Brownian Movement and Molecular Reality (Mouvement brownien et realite moleculaire, 1909)
Atoms (Les Atomes, 1913)

Michael ROSTOVTZEFF (1870-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: one of the 20th century's foremost authorities on ancient Greek, Iranian and Roman history. --Wikipedia
The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire (1926)

William ROUGHEAD (1870–1952) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a well-known Scottish lawyer and amateur criminologist, as well as an editor and essayist on "matters criminous". He was an important early practitioner of the modern "true crime" literary genre. --Wikipedia
Tales of the Criminous (1956)
Comment: covers every sort of homicide, every sort of criminal, and every sort of trial, including several that resulted in quite obvious miscarriages of justice. --Michael Dirda

Ivan BUNIN (1870-1953) Etext: The Online Books Page
Sunstroke (selected stories 2002)

George Douglas BROWN (1869-1902) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Scottish Authors
Note: a Scottish novelist --Wikipedia
The House with the Green Shutters (1901)

Edwin Arlington ROBINSON (1869-1935) Etext: The Online Books Page
Selected Poems (1931)

Hjalmar SODERBERG (1869-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Swedish novelist, playwright, poet and journalist. His works often deal with melancholy and lovelorn characters, and offer a rich portrayal of contemporary Stockholm through the eyes of the flaneur. --Wikipedia
Doctor Glas (1905)
Selected Short Stories (1935)

Mohandas Karamchand GANDHI (1869-1948) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Perry Anderson essay | post
Note: the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. --Wikipedia
The communal massacres showed that Gandhi's teaching of nonviolence had not penetrated the Indian masses. His life work had been in vain--or at least it now appeared that he taught a 'non-violence of the weak' which had been effective against the British but that the more difficult 'non-violence of the strong' he had been unable to teach. --Dwight Macdonald
The mass movement leader who benefits his people and humanity knows not only how to start a movement, but, like Gandhi, when to end its active phase. --Eric Hoffer
One star: An Autobiography (The Story of My Experiments with Truth, 1927-1929)
But this partial autobiography, which ends in the nineteen-twenties, is strong evidence in his favor, all the more because it covers what he would have called the unregenerate part of his life and reminds one that inside the saint, or near-saint, there was a very shrewd, able person who could, if he had chosen, have been a brilliant success as a lawyer, an administrator or perhaps even a businessman. --George Orwell
Since it was written to be serialized in Gandhi's newspaper, Young India, this autobiography has something of a didactic and episodic quality. --Diana Eck

Andre GIDE (1869-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1947. Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the symbolist movement, to the advent of anticolonialism between the two World Wars. --Wikipedia
The Immortalist (L'immoraliste, 1902)
Proselytizing account of self-discovery by homosexual authoritative figure. --Raphael and McLeish
Lafcadio's Adventures or The Vatican Cellars (Les caves du Vatican, 1914)
Corydon (1924)
One star: The Counterfeiters (1927; Les faux-monnayeurs, 1925))
...Edouard, the chief character, is shown writing a novel in which a facsimile of him is writing a novel, in which, we suppose, still a third figure... --Mary McCarthy
Journal 1889-1939 (1939)

Martin Andersen NEXO (1869-1954) Etext: The Online Books Page
Pelle the Conqueror (1917; Pelle Erobreren 2 vol. 1906-1910)

W. E. B. DU BOIS (1868–1963) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. --Wikipedia
The Souls of Black Folk (1903)

Kenjiro TOKUTOMI (1868-1927, "Tokutomi Roka") Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Japanese writer and philosopher. ... He wrote novels under the pseudonym of Roka Tokutomi --Wikipedia
Footsteps in the Snow (1901)

Stefan GEORGE (1868-1933) Etext: The Online Books Page (1868-1933) and The Online Books Page (1868-1933,) | Valhope and Morwitz fan site
Note: a German poet, editor, and translator. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems

Maxim GORKY (1868-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Ravi Vyas essay
Note: Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the Socialist realism literary method and a political activist. --Wikipedia
The Lower Depths (Na dne, 1902)
The play was greeted as another political statement, and in 1905 he was imprisoned as a revolutionary, a sentence commuted to exile after protests by Western writers. --Philip Ward
Autobiographical trilogy: Childhood (Detstvo, 1913), My Apprenticeship (Vlyudyakh, 1916), My Universities (Moi universitey, 1923)
My Recollections of Tolstoy (1919)
Leonid Andreyev (1922)
A. P. Chekhov (1923)

Edgar Lee MASTERS (1868-1950) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American poet, biographer, and dramatist. --Wikipedia
Spoon River Anthology (1915)
Comment: Short, beautifully right descriptions, modelled on the Greek Anthology --Raphael and McLeish

Arnold SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive
Note: a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics --Wikipedia
Atomic Structure and Spectral Lines (Atombau und Spektrallinien, 1919)

Norman DOUGLAS (1868-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a British writer, now best known for his 1917 novel South Wind. --Wikipedia
South Wind (1917)
Looking Back (1933)
Fascinating memoirs of a remarkable writer. --Robert Conquest

Robert A. MILLIKAN (1868-1953) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American experimental physicist --Wikipedia
The Electron: Its Isolation and Measurement and the Determination of Some of Its Properties (1917)
The Electron and the Light-Quant from the Experimental Point of View (May 23, 1924) Etext: Nobel Lecture

Ernest DOWSON (1867-1900) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Poems of Ernest Dowson (1900)

Lionel JOHNSON (1867-1902) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English poet, essayist and critic. --Wikipedia
The collected poems of Lionel Johnson (1953)

Ruben DARIO (1867-1916) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter
Note: a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century --Wikipedia
Selected Poems of Ruben Darío (1965)

Natsume SOSEKI (1867-1916) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: born Natsume Kinnosuke was a Japanese novelist of the Meiji period --Wikipedia
The Meiji period (1868-1912), which represents the transition from the premodern to the modern era, produced several great novelists, one of the most important and widely read being Natsume Soseki. --A Guide to Oriental Classics
One star: Kokoro (1914)

Arnold BENNETT (1867-1931) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Old Wives' Tale (1908)

John GALSWORTHY (1867-1933) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English novelist and playwright. ... He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932. --Wikipedia
The Forsyte Saga: The Man of Property (1906); Indian Summer of a Forsyte (1918); In Chancery (1920); Awakening (1920); To Let (1921)
Begins as a readable indictment of English Edwardianism; ends as a mausoleum. --Raphael and McLeish

Marie CURIE (Maria Sklodowska-Curie, 1867-1934) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Brenda Maddox review
Investigations of Radioactive Substances (Recherches sur les substances radioactive 1903, 1904)

Luigi PIRANDELLO (1867-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet and short story writer. ... Pirandello's tragic farces are often seen as forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd. --Wikipedia
The Late Mattia Pascal (1923; Il Fu Mattia Pascal, 1904)
The hero wanders from his Sicilian home until he is thought dead, then assumes a new name and identity, until that too is insupportable... --Philip Ward
Liola (1952; with Gerardo Guerrien, 1917)
So It Is (If You Think So) (1924; Cosi e (Se Vi Pare) 1918)
One star: Six Characters in Search of an Author (1922; Sei Personaggi in Cerca d'Autore, 1921)
A company of six characters appears during a rehearsal, announces that it is the incomplete, unused creation of the author's imagination, and demands to be allowed to perform the drama that was never written for them but is implied in their lives. --Raphael and McLeish
Henry IV (1964; Enrico IV, 1922)
Each in his own way (1924; Ciascuno a Suo Modo, 1924)
Banquet Speech (December 10, 1934) Etext: Nobel Prize

Edith HAMILTON (1867-1963)
Note: a German-American educator and author who was "recognized as the greatest woman Classicist". --Wikipedia
Mythology (1940)
Comment: Fans of Greek mythology will find all the great stories and characters here--Perseus, Hercules, and Odysseus--each discussed in generous detail by the voice of an impressively knowledgeable and engaging (with occasional lapses) narrator --Gail Hudson

Beatrix POTTER (1866-1943) Etext: The Online Books Page | Kid's Corner Reference: post
The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1900)
Some of the books are even a bit macabre. But the stories usually end up well, which is what children like best: hard times and travails, with a happy ending. --Charles Van Doren, The Joy of Reading (1985) p. 357
In her stories the human and animal world are strangely intertwined. No sentimentality about either is allowed to escape into her flawless prose. --Merrie Cave, Conservative Classic 17: Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit Books, The Salisbury Review, Spring 2005, p. 40
Although Potter's animals are anthropomorphized, they never suffer from the coy sentimentality displayed by less able executants. Her down-to-earth directness makes no concessions to 'childish' vocabulary or tender emotions. --Raphael and McLeish

Thomas Hunt MORGAN (1866-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Lefalophodon
Note: an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role the chromosome plays in heredity. --Wikipedia
The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (1915, with Alfred Sturtevant, H. J. Muller, and Calvin Bridges)
Note: Alfred Henry Sturtevant (November 21, 1891 – April 5, 1970) was an American geneticist. Sturtevant constructed the first genetic map of a chromosome in 1913. --Wikipedia
Note: Hermann Joseph Muller (or H. J. Muller) (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs. --Wikipedia
Note: Calvin Blackman Bridges (January 11, 1889 – December 27, 1938) was an American scientist, known for his contributions to the field of genetics. Along with Alfred Sturtevant and H.J. Muller, Bridges was part of the famous fly room of Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University. --Wikipedia
The Theory of the Gene (1926)

H. G. WELLS (1866-1946) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Carl Rollyson review | Jonathon Keats review
Note: an English writer, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre --Wikipedia
Wells, in his own estimation, was always journalist, never Jamesian artist. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Time Machine (1895)
This marvelous story contains much of Wells' genius; science made plausible and shaped to the needs of mankind. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896)
Comment: evolution again goes awry as a renegade scientist meddles with genetic design. --Michael Dirda
One star: The Invisible Man (1897) Criticism: Bryan Appleyard review
Comment: it is very much a parable of class structure that dominated British life during the Victorian age: there are many "invisible men;" this particular one, however, is in a very literal situation. --Gary F. Taylor
One star: The War of the Worlds (1898)
Comment: When the Martians invade earth, ... they prove immeasurably our superiors and mankind survives through sheerest luck. --Michael Dirda
When the Sleeper Awakes (1899)
Comment: about a nineteen century Englishman who falls in a deep sleep only to awake over two hundred years later. The World has changed beyond recognition, and "The Sleeper" finds himself in a remarkable predicament - he has become the owner of the entire planet. --Bojan Tunguz
One star: The First Men in the Moon (1901)
Comment: one of the explorers meets the Grand Lunar--nothing but a huge brain atop a small, withered body. --Michael Dirda
Kipps (1905)
Comment: Although the major theme of the book - the problems of becoming a gentleman - is similar to that of Dickens in Great Expectations, Wells's mode, through his ironical and intrusive narrator, is essentially comic. Kipps's pains and social gaffes are amusing, exposing at the same time the ludicrous nature of the hero and the society he seeks to join. --D. James
One star: In the Days of the Comet (1906)
Comment: This book tells the story of a world changed by a comet--a comet that passes by the earth and allows everyone to see themselves and one another as they truly are. ... It allows the world to become truly socialist in a non-political way --Mike Smith
One star: The War in the Air (1908)
Comment: In the early 20th century, the invention of aerial vehicles precipitates the outbreak of a worldwide war that had brewed for hundreds of years. The aircrafts' ability to wreck unlimited destruction lays waste to civilization, reducing it to pre-Industrial revolution levels. --Claude Avary
Tono-Bungay (1909)
Comment: Tono Bungay is a fascinating study of a young man who becomes involved in his uncle's patent medicine business. ... The nephew goes into business with the uncle, and the uncle becomes fabulously wealthy from a business that is primarily built on a house of cards which will eventually collapse. --Randall Krippner
Anne Veronica (1909)
Comment: capable of poisoning the minds of those who read it --The Spectator
The History of Mr. Polly (1910)
Comment: conveys the very feel of that lost lower-middle class, pre-World War I, world of minute social gradations, of stifling conformity and of emerging awareness of the potential for change through education and science. Hearing it some nine decades on one is very uncomfortably aware that this entire world is about to be scorched away --Donal A. O'Neill
The New Machiavelli (1910)
Comment: very clever in a malicious way --Beatrice Webb
The World Set Free (1914)
Comment: Certainly Wells viewed war as the inevitable result of the Modern State; the introduction of atomic energy in a world divided resulted in the collapse of society. --Margret Edison
The Research Magnificent (1915)
Comment: takes us on a very entertaining and profound journey via a character named William who insists on living life nobly and thoroughly. Even as a child William had decided that this was the only aristocratic way to live and was determined to do so at all costs, and cost him it does. --Marie Martin
The World of William Clissold (1926)
Comment: not a conventional novel. Only slightly more than half its pages are devoted to events in the eponymous protagonist's life; the others are devoted to extended discussions of general ideas, "everything as it is reflected in my brain." --Wikipedia
The New World Order (1939)
Comment: features his belief that it would be beneficial to the world if a new world order ruled the world which would united all the worlds people and at the same time cause war to no longer exist. --Barnes & Noble

George Ivanovitch GURDJIEFF (1866-1949)
Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson (1950)

Benedetto CROCE (1866-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: David D. Roberts essay
History as the Story of Liberty (1941; La storia come pensiero e come azione 1938)
Philosophy, poetry, history: an anthology (1966)
give an insight into the mind of the greatest of all Italian philosophers, who was as influential in aesthetics and historiography as in the study of literature. --Philip Ward

Arthur KEITH (1866-1955) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Scottish anatomist and anthropologist... . A leading figure in the study of human fossils --Wikipedia
The Antiquity of Man (1925)
Comment: A comprehensive study of the human race. --J. A. Hammerton

Comment: Disunion

W. B. YEATS (1865-1939) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th century literature. ... Yeats was a driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival --Wikipedia
Mythologies (1969)
Note: Contents: The Celtic Twilight [1893]; The Secret Rose [1897]; Stories of Red Hanrahan [1897]; Rosa Alchemica [1897]; Tables of the Law [1897]; Adoration of the Magi [1897]; and Per Amica Silentia Lunae [1917]. --Google Books
A Vision (1925)
Two stars: Collected Poems (1929)
The master modern poet, finding language for every human emotion from the pangs of unrequited love to the ache of old age. --Robert Brustein
Letters on Poetry from W. B. Yeats to Dorothy Wellesley (1935-1938)
Autobiographies (U.S., 1955; The Autobiography of William Butler Yeats, Consisting of 'Reveries Over Childhood and Youth', 'The Trembling of the Veil', and 'Dramatis Personae', 1938)
One star: Collected Plays (1963)

Rudyard KIPLING (1865-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: John Derbyshire review | post
Note: an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He is chiefly remembered for his tales and poems of British soldiers in India and his tales for children. --Wikipedia
Most critics think an interest in Kipling is a sign of a juvenile mind. If so, I plead guilty. --Harold Howe II
One star: The Man Who Would Be King (The Phantom Rickshaw and other Eerie Tales 1888)
Comment: The Indian stories, now cruel, now tender, reveal a mastery of detail such as only Kipling could achieve. Not that detail is everything in art; understanding is essential too; but Kipling had that, as he had humor and sympathy. --Mark Van Doren
One star: The Jungle Books (1894-95)
One star: Kim (1901)
was boy's book, romance, Bildungsroman, and dry-as-dust dispenser of ethnological lore. --Mary McCarthy
One star: Puck of Pook's Hill (1906)
Complete Verse (1940) Reference: Jim Zwick essay
Comment: Product, bard and victim of the British Empire, Kipling has a robustness that outweighs his occasional vulgarity or silliness. --Raphael and McLeish

Irving BABBITT (1865-1933) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Irving Babbitt Project
Note: an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period between 1910 and 1930. --Wikipedia
The New Laokoon: an Essay on the Confusion of the Arts (1920)
Democracy and Leadership (1924)

Frank WEDEKIND (1864-1918) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German playwright. His work, which often criticizes bourgeois attitudes (particularly towards sex), is considered to anticipate expressionism, and he was a major influence on the development of epic theatre. --Wikipedia
Spring Awakening (Fruhlings Erwachen, 1891)
The "Lulu" Plays: Earth Spirit (Erdgeist, 1895) and Pandora's Box (Die Buchse der Pandora, 1904)

Max WEBER (1864-1920) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a German sociologist, philosopher, and political economist whose ideas influenced social theory, social research, and the entire discipline of sociology. --Wikipedia
The very existence of transgressions implies the existence of interdicts against which they are directed; but Weber did not understand that grace only comes through renunciation and that true charisma must therefore be interdictory. --James Hitchcock
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, 1904-1905)
Economy and Society (Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie, 1922)
Weber made permanent contributions to the understanding of society with his discussions of comparative religion, bureaucracy, charisma, and the distinctions among status, class, and party. --Michael Lind
Essays in Sociology (1946)
Note: Structures of Power; Class, Status, Party; Bureaucracy; Sociology of Charismatic Authority; Meaning of Discipline; Social Psychology of World Religions; Protestant Sects & Spirit of Capitalism; Religions Rejections of the World and their Directions; Capitalism & Rural Society in Germany; National Character and the Junkers; India: The Brahman & the Castes; The Chinese Literati; --Amazon
From a vast array of historical data Weber developed concepts--bureaucratic, charismatic, idea types and many others--that are still central in analyzing the recent experiences of modern man. --Alfred D. Chandler

Miguel de UNAMUNO (1864-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page | Project Gutenberg
Note: a Spanish essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher. --Wikipedia
La Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1905)
- The Life of Don Quixote and Sancho According to Miguel de Cervantes (Homer P. Earle translation, 1927)
- Our Lord Don Quixote: The Life of Don Quixote and Sancho with Related Essays (A. Kerrigan translation, 1967)
The Tragic Sense of Life in Men and Nations (Del sentimiento tragico de la vida, 1913)
Mist (Niebla, 1914)
Three Exemplary Novels and a Prologue (Tres novelas ejemplares y un prologo 1920)

Joseph BEDIER (1864-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French writer and scholar and historian of medieval France. --Wikipedia
The Romance of Tristan and Iseult (from Les Legendes Epiques, 1908-21)

S. ANSKY (1863-1930) Reference: Stanford Conference 2001
Note: a Russian Jewish author, playwright, researcher of Jewish folklore, polemicist, and cultural and political activist. --Wikipedia
The Dybbuk or Between Two Worlds (1920)

Constantine P. CAVAFY (1863-1933) Reference: Cavafy Archive Criticism: post
Two stars: Collected Poems (2007)
Greek-born but resident in Alexandria, Cavafy was a subtle poet of luxuriant decline, of poignant moments of love, dramatic and haunting. --Raphael and McLeish
Cavafy wanted 154 of his poems preserved, all of them quite short by the standards of 20th-century poetry, each an attempt to clarify and dramatise, in the style of Browning's dramatic monologues, a moment or incident from the past, either a personal past or that of the wider Hellenic world. --Edward Said

Gabriele D'ANNUNZIO (1863-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Lucy Hughes-Hallett review | Christopher Duggan review
Note: an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and after that political life from 1914 to 1924 --Wikipedia
Maia: In Praise of Life (Maia: Canto Amebeo della Guerra, 1903)

George SANTAYANA (1863-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: post
Note: a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. A lifelong Spanish citizen, Santayana was raised and educated in the United States and identified himself as an American --Wikipedia
The Sense of Beauty (1896)
Interpretations of Poetry and Religion (1900)
The Life of Reason (1905-1906)
Three Philosophical Poets (1910)
Winds of Doctrine (1913)
Character and Opinion in the United States (1920)
Music (in Little Essays 1922)
Skepticism and Animal Faith (1923)
The Unknowable (1923)
Realms of Being (Realm of Essence, 1927; Realm of Matter, 1930; Realm of Truth, 1938)
A Long Way Round to Nirvana (in Some Turns of Thought in Modern Philosophy, 1933)
The Last Puritan (1935)
Persons and Places (The Background of My Life 1944; The Middle Span 1945; My Host the World 1953)
Like everything else from the pen of George Santayana, Persons and Places is elegant, witty, perspicacious, and profound-a distinguished autobiography relating the tangled transatlantic life of one of the century's most original minds. --The Intercollegiate Review
The Idea of Christ in the Gospels (1946)
Dialogues in Limbo (1948)

Felix DUBOIS (1862-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French journalist, explorer and speculator who is best known for his books about his travels in French West Africa. --Wikipedia
Timbuctoo the Mysterious (1896; Tombouctou la Mysterieuse, 1897)
Comment: He gives a truthful portrayal of the impressions of the unprofessional explorer, and his style is vivacious and picturesque. --J. A. Hammerton

David HILBERT (1862-1914) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
The Foundations of Geometry (1899)

Arthur SCHNITZLER (1862-1931) Etext: The Online Books Page
Plays and Stories (ed. Egon Schwarz 1983)

M. R. JAMES (1862-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English author, medieval scholar ... . James redefined the ghost story for the new century by abandoning many of the formal Gothic clichés of his predecessors and using more realistic contemporary settings. --Wikipedia
The Collected Ghost Stories (1931)
Comment: he remains unrivaled in evoking ominous foreboding--and of how easy it is to awaken the unwanted attention of things that should sleep quietly in their tombs or hiding places. --Michael Dirda

Edith WHARTON (1862-1937) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Times Topics Criticism: post
Note: ...American novelist, short story writer, and designer. ... Wharton combined her insider's view of America's privileged classes with a brilliant, natural wit to write humorous, incisive novels and short stories of social and psychological insight. --Wikipedia
Two stars: The House of Mirth (1905)
Ethan Frome (1911)
One star: The Custom of the Country (1913)
is a readable, cunningly plotted portrait of a less than ladylike adventuress, sharply funny --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: The Age of Innocence (1920)
The absolute imprisonment in which her characters stagnate, their artificial and false standards, the desperate monotony of trivial routine, the slow petrification of generous ardours, the paralysis of emotion, the accumulation of ice around the heart, the total loss of life in upholstered existence--are depicted with a high excellence that never falters. --William Lyon Phelps
Collected Short Stories (1968)

Gerhart HAUPTMANN (1862-1946) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German dramatist and novelist who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1912. --Wikipedia
The Weavers (Five Plays, 1961, translated by Theodore H. Lustig, Die Weber, 1892)
The Beaver Coat (Five Plays, 1961, translated by Theodore H. Lustig, Der Biberpelz 1893)
The Assumption of Hannele (Five Plays, 1961, translated by Theodore H. Lustig, Hanneles Himmelfahrt 1893)
Drayman Henschel (Five Plays, 1961, translated by Theodore H. Lustig, Führmann Henschell 1898)
Rose Bernd (Five Plays, 1961, translated by Theodore H. Lustig, Rose Bernd 1903)

William BATESON (1861-1926) Etext: The Online Books Page
Mendel's Principles of Heredity (1902)

Italo SVEVO (1861-1928) Criticism: James Wood review essay
Note: Aron Ettore Schmitz, better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian writer and businessman, known as a novelist, playwright, and short story writer. --Wikipedia
One star: Confessions of Zeno La conscienza di Zeno, 1923)
...Zeno's confessions are prompted by a desire to give up smoking. --Raphael and McLeish
- (Beryl de Zoete translation, 1930)
- (William Weaver translation, 2001) Criticism: Eve Tushnet review
As a Man Grows Older (Beryl de Zoete translation, 1932, 2nd ed. 1949; Senilita, 1898)

Frederick Jackson TURNER (1861-1932) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American historian in the early 20th century --Wikipedia
The Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893)
[H]is idea, that Americans were distinctive because their interaction with the North American environment since the seventeenth century made them democrats and individualist, swept the emerging historical profession in the United States and many opinion-makers outside it... --Walter Nugent
Using as his primary sources beliefs that earlier had been felt rather than thought, Turner made those most American characteristics-optimism, grit, unflinching determination-central to the study of American history. --The Intercollegiate Review
The Territorial Development of the United States (Harvard Classics, 1909-1914) Etext: Bartleby

Rabindranath TAGORE (1861-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. ... he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. --Wikipedia
One star: Collected Poems and Plays (1966)
The greatest literary figure of the Indian national revival in the twentieth century. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

Halford MACKINDER (1861-1947) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English geographer, academic, and Director of the London School of Economics, who is regarded as one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy. --Wikipedia
The Geographical Pivot of History (1904)
The key, he says, is the inner area extending from the Himalayas to the Arctic Ocean, and from the Volga to the Yangtse...
...Europe and the rest of the world have for centuries been under constant pressure from the pivot area, the 'Heartland'. --Robert B. Downs

Alfred North WHITEHEAD (1861-1947) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: post
Note: an English[1] mathematician and philosopher. ... He wrote on algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, religion, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education; all of which were integrated into his comprehensive worldview known today as process philosophy. --Wikipedia
A Treatise on Universal Algebra (1898)
Principia Mathematica (1910-1913, with Bertrand Russell) Etext: Volume I | Volume II | Volume III
attempted to show that all of pure mathematics is derivable from logical principles. --Byron E. Wall
One star: An Introduction to Mathematics (1911)
is exactly what its title says. --Raphael and McLeish
The Place of Classics in Education, Hibbert Journal 21 (1923): 248-261
One star: Science and the Modern World (1925)
Unrivaled in showing what, from the ancient world to the twentieth century, permitted and encouraged the giant adventures of the mind that have formed our world. --Walter Jackson Bate
Religion in the Making (1926)
Process and Reality (1929)
The Aims of Education (1929)
Adventures of Ideas (1933)

Jules LAFORGUE (1860-1887) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Franco-Uruguayan poet, often referred to as a Symbolist poet. --Wikipedia
Selected Writings (1972)

Anton CHEKHOV (1860-1904) Etext: The Online Books Page | Great Books and Classics Criticism: post
Note: a Russian physician, dramaturge and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history. --Wikipedia
The best example--after Shakespeare--of how an artist can express himself truthfully and still retain the full measure of his humanity. --Robert Brustein
Three stars: Uncle Vanya (c. 1890-1896)
Comment: Sonia and her Uncle Vanya (1897), left at the end in the same predicament that they were in before the pompous Professor Serebryakoff came to muddle their existence, see only monotony ahead of them, only a dreary round of days. --Mark Van Doren
Four stars: Three Sisters (1900-1901)
Comment: whose heroines are stifled in the atmosphere they must breathe; they dream of Moscow, where they fancy life would be perfect, but they will never get there. --Mark Van Doren
Four stars: The Cherry Orchard (1904)
Comment: The irresponsible Liuboff Andreievna and her still more irresponsible brother Gaieff, who imagines he is playing billiards when he is supposed to be thinking seriously about the future of the estate--his mind is never where HE is--are so vivid before us that we can have the illusion of being onlookers at a certain moment when the history of Russia opens itself for our inspection. --Mark Van Doren
Much is amusing; but (as always with Chekhov) on the splinter-edge of tears. The cherry orchard falls, the old life, the old Russia pass with it. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: The Tales (trans. Constance Garnett, 13 vol. 1916-1922)
Mood, atmosphere, 'the unforgettable flash of life in its perpetual flow'--no short story writer ever caught these things better. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: The question which Chekhov brings out in all his stories is: 'What is to be done? What is life for?' Chekhov's conclusion is that we are here to work, to serve our brothers. --Dorothy Day
Letters Reference: Wikipedia on translations

D'Arcy Wentworth THOMPSON (1860-1948) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive entry
Note: a Scottish biologist, mathematician, and classics scholar --Wikipedia
On Growth and Form (1917) Criticism: Piero Scaruffi review | R. J. C. Wilding essay

Abraham CAHAN (1860-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Rise of David Levinsky (1917)

Francis THOMPSON (1859-1907) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English poet and ascetic. --Wikipedia

Sholem ALEICHEM (1859-1916) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Network
Note: a leading Yiddish author and playwright from Ukraine. The musical Fiddler on the Roof, based on his stories about Tevye the Dairyman, was the first commercially successful English-language stage production about Jewish life in Eastern Europe. --Wikipedia
Nightingale: Or the Saga of Yosele Solovey the Cantor (Aliza Shevrin translation, 1985)
Tevye the Dairyman (Tevye the Dairyman and the Railroad Stories, 1987)
These were the Jews of the Russian pale who flourished before the Holocaust and who were so poor that the spoken word was their only permanent possession. --Thomas Lask
The Railroad Stories (Tevye the Dairyman and the Railroad Stories, 1987)

Jacques LOEB (1859-1924) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German-born American physiologist and biologist. --Wikipedia
The Mechanistic Conception of Life (1912)

Arthur Conan DOYLE (1859-1930) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Scottish physician and writer who is most noted for his fictional stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction. --Wikipedia
Two stars: The Complete Sherlock Holmes (1887-1927)
Note: The inspiration for the character was an eminent Edinburgh surgeon, Dr Joseph Bell (1837-1911). --Philip Ward
Comment: Despite time, competition and the Reichenbach Falls, Holmes survives as the greatest, most famous detective in literature, an enduring part of popular mythology. --Raphael and McLeish
Oh Sherlock, Sherlock, he's in town again, / That prince of perspicuity, that monument of brain, / It seems he wasn't hurt at all / By tumbling down that waterfall. --P. G. Wodehouse
The Captain of the Polestar, and other tales (1890)
Comment: No matter what the genre, Doyle could hardly write a bad story. Think of the Napoleanic adventures of Brigadier Gerard; the piratical exploits of Captain Sharkey; the grim or touching supernatural tales... . --Michael Dirda
Lost World (1912)
The book set my imagination on fire, and I was thereafter a nesiophile, a lover of islands, the concrete symbols of new worlds awaiting exploration. --Edward O. Wilson

A. E. HOUSMAN (1859-1936) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Kermode | Leithauser
Collected Poems (1939)
Housman conveys a somewhat pessimistic message, which I find sustaining. --Harold Howe II

Havelock ELLIS (1859-1939) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a British physician, writer, and social reformer who studied human sexuality. ... He is credited with introducing the notions of narcissism and autoeroticism, later adopted by psychoanalysis. --Wikipedia
Studies in the Psychology of Sex (seven volumnes, 1897-1928)
The first influential book to take a wholly clinical view of human sexuality divorced from values, morals, and emotions. --The Intercollegiate Review

Henri BERGSON (1859-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a major French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century. Bergson convinced many thinkers that immediate experience and intuition are more significant than rationalism and science for understanding reality. --Wikipedia
Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness (F. L. Pogson translation, 1910; Essai sur les Donnees Immediates de Conscince, 1889) Etext: Mead Project
Matter and Memory (Nancy Margaret Paul and W. Scott Palmer translation, 1911; Matiere et Memoire, 1896) Etext: Mead Project
Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic (C. Brereton and F. Rothwell translation, 1911; Le Rire: Essai sur la Significance du Comique, 1900)
Creative Evolution (Arthur Mitchell translation, 1911; l'Evolution Creatrice, 1907) Etext: Mead Project
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (R. A. Audra and C. Brereton translation, 1935; Les Deux Sources de la Morale et de la Religion, 1932)
The Creative Mind: an Introduction to Metaphysics (M. L. Andison translation, 1946; La Pense et le Mouvant: Essais et Conferences, 1934)

John DEWEY (1859-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page | The Mead Project | Institute for Learning Technologies Reference: Center for Dewey Studies | Perspectives Of Pragmatism Criticism: Richard Rorty review | Richard John Neuhaus review | Randolph S. Bourne essay | post
Note: an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. --Wikipedia
School and Society (1899)
The Practical Character of Reality ("Does Reality Possess Practical Character?" 1908)
How We Think (1910)
Philosophies of Freedom (Lectures by John Dewey: Moral and Political Philosophy, 1915-1916, edited by Warren J. Samuels and Donald F. Koch)
Democracy and Education (1916)
Richly thought-provoking, it enunciates propositions that have since become dogmas. --Raphael and McLeish
Dewey convinced a generation of intellectuals that education isn't about anything; it's just a method, a process for producing democrats and scientists who would lead us into a future that "works." --The Intercollegiate Review
Essays in Experimental Logic (1916)
Reconstruction in Philosophy (1919)
One star: Human Nature and Conduct (1922)
Experience and Nature (1925)
The Quest for Certainty (1929)
Affective Thought (collected in Philosophy and Civilization 1931)
Development of American Education (American Education Past and Future 1931)
Ethics (second edition,with James Hayden Tufts, 1932)
Art as Experience (1934)
The idea that aesthetic experience was not the special property of an educated elite, but was knowable, an important and universal human phenomenon engaging the senses and capable of being experienced on many different levels, was attractive. --Anne Whiston Spirn
Logic (1938)
Experience and Education (1938)
it was written twenty years after (and modifies) his Democracy and Education, in the light of experience with progressive schools. --Raphael and McLeish
Freedom and Culture (1939)
Science and Society (The Philosophy of John Dewey, Volume I: The Structure of Experience, V. The Culture of Inquiry, 23. Science and Society, 1973)
Individual Psychology and Education Etext: The Philosopher (1934)

Knut HAMSUN (1859-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: James Wood review
One star: Sult (1890; The Hunger, trans. George Egerton 1899, trans. Robert Bly 1967; trans. Sverre Lyngstad 1996)
Mysterier (1892; trans. Arthur G. Chater 1926; trans. Gerry Bothmer, 1971; trans. Sverre Lyngstad 2001)
Pan, af Loetnant Thomas Glahn's Papier (1894; W.W. Worster translation, 1920; James W. McFarlane translation, 1955; Sverre Lyngstad translation, 1998)

E. NESBIT (1858-1924) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English author and poet --Wikipedia
Five Children and It (1902)
Comment: The grouchy Psammead gradually agrees to grant one wish a day to the children.
The rest of the book, a series of linked episodes, relates what happens when the siblings gradually learn the truth of the grown-up maxim 'Be careful what you wish for; you might get it.' --Michael Dirda

Henry Watson FOWLER (1858-1933) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language --Wikipedia
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926)

Charles W. CHESNUTT (1858-1932) Etext: The Online Books Page
Short Fiction (1974)

Franz BOAS (1858-1942) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology". --Wikipedia
The Mind of Primitive Man (1911)
Boas was the first to proclaim that mankind is indissolubly one, and that all races have the potential to produce and create equally. --Raphael and McLeish
Anthropology and Modern Life (1928)

Max PLANCK (1858-1947) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Max Planck Society
Note: a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory --Wikipedia
it was Planck's law of radiation that yielded the first exact determination--independent of other assumptions--of the absolute magnitudes of atoms. More than that, he showed convincingly that in addition to the atomistic structure of matter there is a kind of atomistic structure to energy, governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced by Planck. --Albert Einstein
Lectures on Thermodynamics (Varlesungen uber Thermodynamik, 1897)
Lectures on the Theory of Heat Radiation (Varlesungen uber die Theorie der Warmestrahlung, 1906)
The Universe in the Light of Modern Physics (1931)
Where Is Science Going? (1932)
The Philosophy of Physics (1936)
Scientific Autobiography (1949)
The Genesis and Present State of Development of the Quantum Theory (June 2, 1920) Etext: Nobel Lecture

George GISSING (1857-1903) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English novelist who ... also worked as a teacher and tutor throughout his life. --Wikipedia
New Grub Street (1891) Criticism: Benjamin Schwarz review

John DAVIDSON (1857-1909) Etext: The Online Books Page
Ballads and Songs (1894)

Joseph CONRAD (1857-1924) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Polish author who wrote in English after settling in England. ... He wrote stories and novels, often with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of an indifferent universe. --Wikipedia
One star: Lord Jim (1900) Criticism: George A. Panichas essay [pdf]
One star: Heart of Darkness (1902)
Comment: Take all kinds of social conventions away, and man becomes a brute, willing to adopt any methods to achieve his ends. --Anthony Daniels
Conrad's most compelling short story, flawed by melodramatic adjectives but still alive and horrifying. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: Today it is scarcely possible to read Marlow's celebration of England without irony; to many, especially among the English themselves, it is bound to seem patently absurd. ... Having the choice to make, Conrad himself elected to become English exactly because he believed England to be a good nation. --Lionel Trilling
One star: Nostromo (1904)
Set in an imaginary South American republic, Nostromo is a study of adventure and the temptations of power. The 'South American' novel originates and flowers here. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Secret Agent (1907)
seemed grotesque melodrama, but modern urban terrorism has its roots in Mr Verloc's nihilistic mania and, perhaps, domestic despair. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: Terrorism is the little man's revenge --Robert D. Kaplan
One star: Under Western Eyes (1911)
is concerned with Russian politics and psychology in the year 1911, and particularly with the revolutionary mind. --Philip Ward
The Secret Sharer (1912)
Comment: has two chief characters, a young merchant captain and a refugee officer whom he hides in his cabin --Mark Van Doren
Victory (1915)

Thorstein VEBLEN (1857-1929) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Matthew Price essay
Note: an American economist and sociologist, and leader of the institutional economics movement. --Wikipedia
One star: The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
Veblen shows the outer reaches of hypocrisy. --John D. Montgomery
The Higher Learning in America (1918)
The Place of Science in Modern Civilization (1919)
Vested Interests and the State of Industrial Arts (1919)
Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times (1923)

C. S. SHERRINGTON (1857-1952) Reference: UIC
The Integrative Action of the Nervous System (1906)
Man on His Nature (1940)

Harold FREDERIC (1856-1898) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American journalist and novelist. --Wikipedia
The Damnation of Theron Ware or Illumination (1896)

Frederick Winslow TAYLOR (1856-1915) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. --Wikipedia
Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

Woodrow WILSON (1856-1924) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Wilson Center Criticism: Ronald J. Pestritto review | Charles Paul Freund essay | Richard M. Gamble essay [pdf] | Frederick W. Kagan review
Note: the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement --Wikipedia
The New Freedom (1913)
According to H.L. Mencken, a book for "the tender-minded in general." --The Intercollegiate Review

Louis SULLIVAN (1856–1924) Etext: The Online Books Page Bookseller:University of Chicago Press
Note: an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". --Wikipedia
Characteristics and Tendencies of American Architecture (1885)
What is the Just Subordination, in Architectural Design, of Details to Mass? (The Inland Architect and News Record 9, 52, April 1887)
Emotional Architecture as Compared with Intellectual: A Study in Subjective and Objective (1894)
The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered (1896)
What is Architecture?: A Study in the American People of Today (1906)

H. Rider HAGGARD (1856-1925) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English writer of adventure novels set in exotic locations, predominantly Africa, and a founder of the Lost World literary genre. --Wikipedia
King Solomon's Mines (1885)
Comment: It opens as all good thrillers should--with a dying man and a crumbling map pointing the way to hidden treasure. --Michael Dirda
She (1887)
Comment: Haggard's romance is, in truth, a great mystical poem of love and death, of love beyond death. --Michael Dirda

Sigmund FREUD (1856-1939) Etext: The Online Books Page | Classics in the History of Psychology Study: Armand Nicholi, Jr., lecture Criticism: post
Note: an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. --Wikipedia
thought that he shared with Copernicus the distinction of having shaken man's confidence in himself. --Peter Wolff
Freud's discovery of the unconscious as an integral part of mental life irreversibly changed the conception of the human psyche. --Robert L. Heilbroner
taught authority to see in itself only the vestiges of taboo, causing many of the cultural elite unwittingly to go over to what he called the 'mass'--those who have no love for instinctual renunciation--in the most elaborate act of cultural suicide Western intellectuals have yet staged. --James Hitchcock
Three stars: The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung, 1900)
Freud's claim, which is now generally conceded, is that this content of the dream is derived from the experiences of the dreamer in the twenty-four hour period just preceding. --V. J. McGill
Freud taught that day-dreams express open and conscious wish-fulfillment, while night dreams express the repressed desires of the subconscious, censored during the day by the conscious mind. --Philip Ward
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, 1901) Humor: Gary Blake
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, 1905)
Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious (Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewuszten, 1905)
The Sexual Enlightenment of Children (1907)
The Origin and Development of Psycho-Analysis (1910)
The Future Prospects of Psychoanalytic Therapy (1910) Etext: Readings in Psychoanalysis — Fall 2009
The Dynamics of Transference (1912) Etext: Readings in Psychoanalysis — Fall 2009
Totem and Taboo (Totem und Tabu, 1913)
(even if based on assumptions no longer shared by anthropologists) --Thor Sevcenko
Comment: Freud's rooting of religion in incest and patricide was a direct attack not only on religion as a whole, but especially on Christianity--both on the Eucharist and perhaps on the idea of the Virgin Mary--with his implication that the most holy sacrament of the Christian Church was a vile recapitulation of patricidal cannibalism fueled by incest. --Benjamin Wiker
On the History of the Psycho-Analytical Movement (Zur Geschichte der psychoanalytischen Bewegung, 1914)
the best place at which to start reading, within the vast canon of Freud's work, his own defense of the analytic attitude against the doctrinaire therapeutics. --Philip Rieff
On Narcissism: An Introduction (Zur Einfuhrung des Narziszmus, 1914)
Thoughts for the Times on War and Death (1915)
Instincts and Their Vicissitudes (1915)
Repression (1915)
The Unconscious (1915)
One star: Introduction to Psychoanalysis (Vorlesungen zur Einfuhring in die Psychoanalyse, 1917)
His reasons for extending the meaning of this term ['sexual'] came from a study of three sets of facts: (1) perversions, (2) neuroses, and (3) infant sexuality. People balk at calling these things sexual, but Freud argues vigorously and voluminously that they are. --V. J. McGill
As with Marx, it's not the tight, totalitarian theories the disciples have spun that count here. It's the unconsciousness, there all the time but never there until you trick it into sight, the self permanently destabilized. --Duncan Kennedy
Beyond the Pleasure Principle (Jenseits des Lustprinzips, 1920)
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse, 1921)
Psycho-analysis (1922)
The Ego and the Id (Das Ich und das Es, 1923)
Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (1926)
Two stars: Civilization and Its Discontents (Das Unbehagen in der Kultur, 1930)
admits that tracing religious beliefs back to psychic needs does not disprove their objective truth. He relies on the findings of the natural sciences for that. --Seymour Cain
The renunciation by individuals of instinctive gratifications, however, has created intense inner antagonisms and conflicts in mankind, accounting, according to Freud, for the turmoil of present-day civilization. --Robert B. Downs
One star: New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1932)
The ego, then, does not simply inhibit its pleasure seeking; it is humiliated and tortured by an apparently independent agency, split off from the ego. This is the superego. --V. J. McGill
These lectures are an ideal key for newcomers to his work. --Raphael and McLeish
Moses and Monotheism (Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion, 1939)
he calls the church the old enemy, as compared to the new enemy, Nazism. --Seymour Cain
An Outline of Psychoanalysis (Abrisz der Psychoanalyse, 1940)
Three Case Histories (1963)
Beyond question Freud is history's most important philosopher of the mind, and he ranks alongside Eliot as the century's greatest literary critic. --David Gelernter
The Future of an Illusion (Die Zukunft einer Illusion, 1927)
Comment: The illusion consists in the desire that there should be a cosmic father who continues to allay our feeling of helplessness, taking care of us in this world and the next. But as God doesn't exist, this desire has no real object; it is not only an illusion, but a 'delusion'. --Benjamin Wiker

George Bernard SHAW (1856-1950) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Bibliography at Wikipedia Criticism: post
Note: an Irish playwright... . He was also an essayist, novelist and short story writer. Nearly all his writings address prevailing social problems --Wikipedia
Our Lost Honesty (1884)
Fabian Essays in Socialism (1889, with Sidney Webb, 1859-1947, William Clarke, 1852-1901, Sydney Olivier, 1859-1943, Annie Besant, 1847-1933, Graham Wallas, 1858-1932, and Hubert Bland, 1856-1914) Etext: The Online Books Page
Single-minded devotion to public service was as much in evidence in all this as was intolerance of other views about individual and national values--in its way quite as pronounced as was that of the Marxists--and an element of petty-bourgeois resentment against everything arisotocratic, including beauty. --Joseph A. Schumpeter
One star: Arms and the Man (1898)
One star: Candida (1898)
The Man of Destiny (1899)
One star: The Devil's Disciple (1901)
One star: Caesar and Cleopatra (1901)
Comment: [C]onveys among other things the conviction of Shaw that Julius Caesar was one of the great men of all time, and therefore superior, Shaw thought, to the figure Shakespeare gave him to cut in the great play that bears his name. --Mark Van Doren
Two stars: Man and Superman (1903)
Comment: ...John Tanner is Shaw's own man: opinionated, headstrong, eloquent, yet wittily aware of his own absurdity if someone like Ann, whom he loves in spite of his resolution never to yield his freedom to any woman, has the audacity to point it out. --Mark Van Doren
John Bull's Other Island (1904)
Doctor's Dilemma (1906)
Dramatic Opinion and Essays (1906)
Two stars: Major Barbara (1907)
Comment: Undershaft, a munitions-maker, justifies his trade on the ground that it may help men to shoot and kill such abominations as poverty, which he thinks the Salvation Army, in the person of Barbara, sentimentally encourages rather than cures. --Mark Van Doren
Getting Married (1908)
Two stars: Pygmalion (1913)
One star: Androcles and the Lion (1916)
Two stars: Heartbreak House (1919)
One star: Back to Methuselah (1921)
Three stars: Saint Joan (1924)
Comment: Once more we have a conflict of wills, and once more the balance is even; for the death of Joan does not absolve those who burned her, even though they had the best of reasons. --Mark Van Doren
Shaw's unsentimental, unfussy drama at its best. Prose has point and point; arguments lucid, not too wordy; stage action compelling; portrait of clear-headed young girl (a recurring theme in Shaw's work) persuasive and warm. --Raphael and McLeish
Major Critical Essays (1932)
Capital and Wages (Road to Equality: Ten Unpublished Lectures and Essays, 1885-1918, 1971)
Freedom and the State (Road to Equality: Ten Unpublished Lectures and Essays, 1885-1918, 1971)
Redistribution of Income (Road to Equality: Ten Unpublished Lectures and Essays, 1885-1918, 1971)
Socialism and Culture (Road to Equality: Ten Unpublished Lectures and Essays, 1885-1918, 1971)
The Artstruck Englishman Etext: The New Republic (February 17, 1917)

Arthur RIMBAUD (1854-1891) Etext: The Online Books Page | Academy of American Poets Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography Criticism: post
Note: a French poet born in Charleville, Ardennes. As part of the decadent movement, he influenced modern literature and arts, inspired various musicians, and prefigured surrealism. All of his poetry was written as a teenager --Wikipedia
In his view the poet is a man apart, a voyant who must go beyond good and evil to express the inexpressible, if necessary by inducing states of delirium. --Philip Ward
Still the question lurks. What do people talk about when they talk about Arthur Rimbaud? Is it his oblique and strangely impersonal verse that has outlived him, or is it his high-pitched but ultimately impenetrable life that casts such a long shadow? --Daphne Merkin
One star: Complete Works (Oeuvres completes, 1895)

Oscar WILDE (1854-1900) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Times Topics Criticism: Theodore Dalrymple essay | Louis Auchincloss essay | post
Note: an Irish writer and poet. Today he is remembered for his epigrams, his only novel (The Picture of Dorian Gray), his plays, and the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death. --Wikipedia
Comment: he became known as a writer and lecturer, but his real fame came from being Oscar Wilde. He is therefore the first modern celebrity, famous for being famous. --Emily Allen
De Profundis (1891)
...the prose letter to 'Bosie', his homosexual friend Lord Alfred Douglas, is the cardinal document in that scandal which broke upon the public in 1895 with Wilde's defeat in the case brought against the Maquess of Queensberry for criminal libel, and his imprisonment, with hard labour, for two years. --Philip Ward
One star: The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) Humor: Mike Peters comic strip
...an autobiographical novel of tragic intensity... --Philip Ward
One star: Lady Windermere's Fan (1893)
An Ideal Husband (1899)
One star: The Importance of Being Earnest (1899)
verbal opera --W. H. Auden
Wilde's wicked expose of the artificiality of conventional morality and his one unequivocally great work. --Daniel Mendelsohn
Cool as a cucumber sandwich, reasonable as Euclid, this famous farce avoids the melodrama that often flaws Wilde's other work. --Raphael and McLeish
Letters (1962)
Wilde's mercurial career encapsulated in his own words, from international literary fame to public obloquy, destitution and neglect. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Artist as Critic (1969)

Henri POINCARE (1854-1912) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science. --Wikipedia
The New Methods of Celestial Mechanics (1993; Les Methodes nouvelles de la mecanique celeste 3 vols., 1892, 1893, 1899)
One star: Science and Hypothesis (1905; La science et l'hypothese 1902)
The Value of Science (1907; La valeur de la science 1905)
Science and Method (1914; Science et Methode 1908)

James George FRAZER (1854-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. --Wikipedia
Two stars: The Golden Bough
Note: It was first published in two volumes in 1890; in three volumes in 1900; the third edition, published 1906–15, comprised twelve volumes. --Wikipedia
the foundation of the modern 'Cambridge school' anthropology. --Raphael and McLeish

Vincent VAN GOGH (1853-1890) Etext: The Online Books Page
Complete Letters (1958)
Moving account of Van Gogh's struggles against encroaching mental illness and artistic neglect; but full of sharp irony that hindsight brings... . --Raphael and McLeish

Hendrik LORENTZ (1853-1928) Etext: The Online Books Page | Instituut Lorentz
Note: a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman... . He also derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time. --Wikipedia
The Theory of Electrons and Its Application to the Phenomena of Light and Radiant Heat (1909)

Leopoldo ALAS (1852-1901) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: also known as Clarín, was an Spanish realist novelist --Wikipedia
The Regent's Wife (La Regenta, 1884-85)

I. L. PERETZ (1851-1915) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Yiddish language author and playwright. --Wikipedia
Selected Stories (1991) excerpt from The Golem Etext: St. Andrews University Jewish Society

Kate CHOPIN (1851-1904) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: PBS retrospective
Note: an American author of short stories and novels. She is now considered by some to have been a forerunner of feminist authors of the 20th century. --Wikipedia
Two stars: The Awakening (1899)
Comment: At the center of the book are Edna’s efforts to negotiate her awakening in social terms. Her awakening comes in stages and is not entirely, or even primarily, sexual in nature. --Grant L. Voth

/\ Later Mid-19th Century

\/ 1826-1850 | 1876-1900 /\

Revised June 12, 2014.