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Read Me What to read, 1901-1925

\/ 1876-1900 | 1926 on /\

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Comment: If you believe everything you read you are much worse off than if you were unable to read at all. --William Empson

\/ Early 20th Century

James SALTER (1925-2015)
Note: an American novelist and short-story writer. --Wikipedia
Light Years (1975)
Comment: Remarkable... . Salter celebrates the silver-and-golden bitterness of life. Light Years ... becomes an unexpectedly moving ode to beautiful lives frayed by time. --James Wolcott
Solo Faces (1979)
Comment: contrasts a devotion to mountain climbing with the earthbound tugs of love and ordinary life --Michael Dirda
Contributor Etext: The New York Review of Books

Flannery O'CONNOR (1925-1964) Reference: Flannery O'Connor Collection Criticism: post
Note: an American writer and essayist. ... She was a Southern writer who often wrote in a Southern Gothic style and relied heavily on regional settings and grotesque characters. O'Connor's writing also reflected her own Roman Catholic faith, and frequently examined questions of morality and ethics. --Wikipedia
Wise Blood (1952)
Comment: In Taulkinham, U.S.A., the city of Fiendish Evangelists, one is brought into a world not so much of accursed or victimized human beings as into the company of an ill-tempered and driven collection of one-dimensional creatures of sheer meanness and orneriness... --William Goyen
Two stars: A Good Man Is Hard to Find (1955)
Comment: ...“The River,” one of her most sacramental stories, focused entirely on the collision course between the sacred and the secular, as shown in the exploration of baptism. --Arnold Weinstein
The Violent Bear It Away (1960)
One star: Everything That Rises Must Converge (1965)
Comment: ...“Judgment Day,” explores not only death but its aftermath, the final fate of body and soul, the final evaluation and revelation of who we are. --Arnold Weinstein
The Habit of Being (1978)
Comment: The beautiful letters of America's most profound writer this century. --The Intercollegiate Review

MISHIMA Yukio (Hiraoka Kimitake, 1925-1970)
One star: The Sea of Fertility (1969-71)

John HAWKES (1925-1998) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a postmodern American novelist, known for the intensity of his work, which suspended some traditional constraints of narrative fiction. --Wikipedia
The Cannibal (1949)
Second Skin (1964)

Jose Cardoso PIRES (1925-1998) Reference: O Delfim
Ballad of the Dogs' Beach (A Balada de Praia do Caes 1982)

T. CARMI (Carmi Charny 1925-1994) Reference: Zionist
At the Stone of Losses (1983)

Edward GOREY (1925-2000)
Note: an American writer and artist noted for his illustrated books.His characteristic pen-and-ink drawings often depict vaguely unsettling narrative scenes in Victorian and Edwardian settings. --Wikipedia
Comment: To describe the contents--plot is usually too grand a word--of Gorey's many illustrated novellettes is to make them sound utterly grim or kitsch, when they actually balance the elusive whimsy of children's nonsense (as in the works of Lewis Carroll or Edward Lear) with the discreet charm of black comedy. --Michael Dirda
Amphigorey (1972)
Amphigorey Too (1975)
Amphigorey Also (1983)
Amphigorey Again (2006)

Russell HOBAN (1925-2011) Reference: Awl
Riddley Walker (1980)

Philippe JACCOTTET (b. 1925) Etext: Modern Poetry in Translation Reference: portrait 123 | portrait 002
Note: a Francophone poet and translator from the Vaud canton in Switzerland. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1988)

Donald JUSTICE (1925-2004) Etext: Academy of American Poets
Selected Poems (1979)

Kenneth KOCH (1925-2002) Etext: Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets
Note: an American poet, playwright, and professor... . He was a prominent poet of the New York School of poetry, a loose group of poets including Frank O'Hara and John Ashbery that eschewed contemporary introspective poetry in favor of an exuberant, cosmopolitan style that drew major inspiration from travel, painting, and music --Wikipedia
Seasons on Earth (1987)

PRAEMODYA Ananta Toer (1925-2006) Reference: Bardsley
Buru Quartet: This Earth of Mankind (1980); Child of All Nations (1980); Footsteps (1985); House of Glass (1988)

William STYRON (1925-2006) Reference: The New York Review of Books | Times Topics
The Long March (1953)
describes the conflict between the liberal and the authoritarian through the image of a training march in which the liberal seeks to prove himself through self-destructive endurance. --Raphael and McLeish

Gore VIDAL (1925-2012) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American writer known for his essays, novels, screenplays, and Broadway plays. --Wikipedia
One star: Myra Breckenridge (1968)
Comment: a comic novel with a transexual lead character; it poked fun at American hypocrisies, and was considered shocking at the time... --John S. Major
Burr (1974)
Lincoln (1984)
The Empire Lovers Strike Back Etext: The Nation (March 22, 1986)
Shredding the Bill of Rights Etext: Bold Type (May 2001)
Contributor Etext: The New York Review of Books

Gerald DURRELL (1925-1995)
My Family and Other Animals (1965)
Comment: Winning combination of animals, insects, and the author's slapstick family (he is the brother of Lawrence Durrell), all set in Corfu between the wars. --Raphael and McLeish

ABE Kobo (Abe Kimifusa, 1924-1993) Reference: Keffer | Kato Koiti
The Woman in the Dunes (1962)

Truman CAPOTE (1924-1984) Criticism: post
Note: an American author, many of whose short stories, novels, plays, and nonfiction are recognized literary classics --Wikipedia
Comment: The only thing Truman Capote and I have in common was Howard Hunt beat us out for a Guggenheim [Fellowship]. --Gore Vidal
Other Voices, Other Rooms (1948)
Breakfast at Tiffany's (1958)
One star: In Cold Blood (1966)
Comment: It presents the metaphysics of anti-realism through a total evocation of reality. Not the least of the book's merits is that it manages a major moral judgment without the author's appearance once on stage. --Conrad Knickerbocker

James BALDWIN (1924-1987) Criticism: post
Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953)
Comment: It does not produce its story as an accumulation of shocks (as most novels of Negro life do), or by puffing into a rigid metaphysical system (as most novels about religion do); it makes its utterance by tension and friction. --Donald Barr
Notes of a Native Son (1955) Criticism: Sol Stein essay | Jonathan Yardley essay | Irving Howe essay
Giovanni's Room (1956)
The Fire Next Time (1963) Criticism: F. W. Dupee review
The Price of the Ticket (1985)

Jose DONOSO (1924-1996)
The Obscene Bird of Night (El obsceno pajaro de la noche 1970)

Yehuda AMICHAI (1924-2000) Etext: Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets | three poems Criticism: Lawrence Joseph interview
Note: an Israeli poet. Amichai is considered by many, both in Israel and internationally, as Israel's greatest modern poet. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1971)
Travels (1986)

Edgar BOWERS (1924-2000)
Living Together: New and Selected Poems (1973)

William H. GASS (b. 1924) Criticism: Wolcott
Note: an American novelist, short-story writer, essayist, critic, and former philosophy professor. --Wikipedia
Omensetter's Luck (1966)
In the Heart of the Heart of the Country (1968)

Zbigniew HERBERT (1924-1998) Etext: Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Charles Simic review
Note: a Polish poet, essayist, drama writer and moralist --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1968)

Josef SKVORECKY (1924-2012)
Comment: The voice of his writing is usually sunny and joyful, the high spirits of Mozart or of Sidney Bechet. The matter of his stories, however, can be very dark indeed. --Neal Ascherson
The Cowards (1958)
The Bass Saxophone (1967)

Michel TOURNIER (1924-2016)
Note: a French writer. ... His works dwell on the fantastic, his inspirations including traditional German culture, Catholicism, and the philosophies of Gaston Bachelard. --Wikipedia
The Ogre (1972; Le Roi des aulnes 1970)
Friday and Robinson (1977; Vendredi ou la Vie sauvage)
Comment: By turning the shipwreck into a stroke of destiny, Tournier turns the contingent life of Crusoe into the necessary life. From the moment of his awakening on the beach, his every step is toward the 'real' Crusoe who has always been waiting inside. --Sven Birkerts

James SCHUYLER (1923-1991)
Collected Poems (1993)

James DICKEY (1923-1997) Reference: James Dickey Society Criticism: Meyers
The Early Motion (1981)
The Central Motion (1983)

Walter M. MILLER, Jr. (1923-1996) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American science fiction author. ... He took part in the bombing of the Benedictine Abbey at Monte Cassino, which proved a traumatic experience for him --Wikipedia
A Canticle for Leibowitz (1960)
Comment: Awesome account of post-apocalypse world and the Second Coming, immaculately conceived in SF terms; postulates the Church as a repository of technological secrets from a past civilization now regarded as sacred writings. --Raphael and McLeish

Norman MAILER (1923-2007) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Times Topics Criticism: Andrew O’Hagan review | post
Note: an American novelist, journalist, essayist, playwright, film maker, actor and political candidate --Wikipedia
The Naked and the Dead (1948)
Tour de force of an enforced tour of duty by riflemen in the South Pacific in World War II; the sexual obsessiveness of frightened soldiers counterpoints the power-madness of their commanders. --Raphael and McLeish
Advertisements for Myself (1959)
Note: includes the essay 'The White Negro: Superficial Reflections on the Hipster' (1957)
The Armies of the Night (1968)
Comment: Fact or fiction? Not even Mailer knew for sure. --The Intercollegiate Review
One star: The Executioner's Song (1979)
Comment: The very subject of The Executioner's Song is that vast emptiness at the center of the Western experience, a nihilism antithetical not only to literature but to most other forms of human endeavor, a dread so close to zero that human voices fade out, trail off, like skywriting. --Joan Didion
Ancient Evenings (1983)
The White Negro Etext: Dissent (Fall, 1957)
Superman Comes to the Supermarket Etext: Esquire (November, 1960)

Yves BONNEFOY (1923-2016)
Note: a French poet and art historian. He also published a number of translations, most notably the plays of William Shakespeare which are considered among the best in French. --Wikipedia
Words in Stone (Pierre ecrite 1965)

Anthony HECHT (1923-2004) Criticism: David Yezzi essay
Note: an American poet. His work combined a deep interest in form with a passionate desire to confront the horrors of 20th century history, with the Second World War, in which he fought, and the Holocaust being recurrent themes in his work. --Wikipedia
Comment: Urbane, discursive, elegant... . He brings to American writing an essentially European temperament... .--Raphael and McLeish
Collected Earlier Poems (1990) Reference: Table of Poems
Note: contains The Hard Hours, Millions of Strange Shadows, and The Venetian Vespers... --Poetry Foundation

Eugenio de ANDRADE (Jose Fontinhas, (1923-2005)
Selected Poems Etext: Levitin

Italo CALVINO (1923-1985) Criticism: Jonathan Lethem essay | Gore Vidal essay
Note: an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. --Wikipedia
The Baron in the Trees (1959; Il barone rampante, 1957);
The Nonexistent Knight (1962; Il cavaliere inesistente, 1959)
t zero (1969, or Time and the Hunter, 1970; Ti con zero, 1967)
One star: Invisible Cities (1974; Le citta invisibili, 1972)
Comment: nominally based on the Chinese voyages of Marco Polo; in reality (if such a word is appropriate here), Calvino suggests that cities--all cities, any city, and perhaps specifically Marco Polo’s home city of Venice--can never be known, no matter how many ways one tries to approach it. --Arnold Weinstein
The Castle of Crossed Destinies (1977 William Weaver translation; Il castello dei destini incrociati, 1969)
Comment: a group of travelers, rendered mysteriously mute, use tarot cards to relate their past adventures. Ostensibly, Calvino's written text simply interprets or elaborates on the meaning of each card. --Michael Dirda
One star: If on a Winter's Night a Traveler (1981; Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore, 1979)
Comment: offers us one chapter parodies of eastern European novels, erotic fiction, and magic realism. In between these chapters--all of which break off at cliffhanger moments, like old-time serials--you discover that the boundaries between the real and the read seem to be breaking down. --Michael Dirda
Contributor Etext: The New York Review of Books

Nadine GORDIMER (1923-2014) Reference: Times Topics
Note: a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature. --Wikipedia
Selected Stories (1974)

Joseph HELLER (1923-1999)
Note: an American satirical novelist, short story writer, and playwright. The title of one of his works, Catch-22, entered the English lexicon to refer to a vicious circle wherein an absurd, no-win choice, particularly in situations in which the desired outcome of the choice is an impossibility, and regardless of choice, a same negative outcome is a certainty. --Wikipedia
One star: Catch-22 (1961) Criticism: Robert Brustein review
Title proverbial; book longer than witty, though very witty. Bravura passages of anti-war farce laced with blood; Yossarian a memorable protagonist, what one can remember of him. --Raphael and McLeish

Miroslav HOLUB (1923-1998) Etext: three poems
One star: "The Fly" (1987)

Chairil ANWAR (1922-1949) Criticism: Ward Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
Complete Poetry and Prose

Jack KEROUAC (1922-1969) Reference: U. Mass. Lowell
Note: an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. --Wikipedia
On the Road (1957) Criticism: Phoebe Lou Adams review
Comment: For its depiction of an era and a life-style. --John Williams Collins III
Comment: Maddening 'bible' of the Beat generation. --Raphael and McLeish

Pier Paolo PASOLINI (1922-1975)

Philip LARKIN (1922-1985) Etext: Poetry Foundation Reference: The Philip Larkin Society Criticism: Christopher Tayler review | Christopher Hitchens essay | John Banville essay | Robert Phillips interview
Note: an English poet, novelist and librarian. --Wikipedia
Comment: He is the voice of the post-Auden generation, in the provincial register. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Collected Poems (Anthony Thwaite editor, 1989, 1993)
Note The Complete Poems (Archie Burnett editor, 2012) --ed.

Vasko POPA (1922-1991) Etext: eleven poems
Selected Poems

Kingsley AMIS (1922-1995) Criticism: Christopher Tayler review | post
Note: an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. He wrote more than 20 novels, six volumes of poetry, a memoir, various short stories, radio and television scripts, along with works of social and literary criticism. --Wikipedia
Lucky Jim (1961)
Comment: ...Jim Dixon, English grammar school-educated academic, has had a thousand irreverent successors, none with quite his anarchic eye for the main chance. --Raphael and McLeish

Donald DAVIE (1922-1995)
Selected Poems

Thomas KUHN (1922-1996) Reference: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: John Horgan essay | post
Note: an American physicist, historian, and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was deeply influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term "paradigm shift", which has since become an English-language staple. --Wikipedia
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) Etext: Marxists Internet Archive (excerpt) Study: Malcolm R. Forster guide Criticism: John Naughton review
Comment: It pays tribute to scientific 'revolutionaries' who insist on seeing the world differently and reveals the crushing power of 'normal' science. But it reminds us that, in the end, even science is a social and political process. --Mark Moore

William GADDIS (1922-1998) Reference: Annotations
The Recognitions (1955)
J. R. (1975)

Kurt VONNEGUT (1922-2007) Reference: Official Website Criticism: post
Note: an American writer. ... Vonnegut's experience as a soldier and prisoner of war had a profound influence on his later work. --Wikipedia
One Cat's Cradle (1963)
One Slaughterhouse Five (1969)
Comment: He wrote many fine and funny books, but the only story he really wanted to tell was about what had happened to Dresden on that night in February 1945. --Charles Van Doren

Gertrude HIMMELFARB (b. 1922)
Note: an American historian. ... Himmelfarb is a leading defender of traditional historical methods and practices. --Wikipedia
The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age (1985)

Gerald HOLTON (b. 1922)
Note: ...Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics and professor of the history of science, emeritus, at Harvard University. --Wikipedia
and Katherine SOPKA (1921-2009)
Note: a science interviewer, physics professor and historian of physics. --Wikipedia
Great Books of Science in the Twentieth Century: Physics (The Great Ideas Today 1979, 1979)

Howard MOSS (1922-1987) Etext: Poetry Foundation
Note: an American poet, dramatist and critic. He was poetry editor of The New Yorker magazine from 1948 until his death --Wikipedia
New Selected Poems (1985)
Comment: one sees a steady growth in maturity and power from the brittle brilliance of the early work to the rich, fluid meditations of his most recent volumes. --Vernon Shetley

Grace PALEY (1922-2007)
Note: an American short story writer, poet, teacher, and political activist. --Wikipedia
The Little Disturbances of Man (1959)

Alain ROBBE-GRILLET (1922-2008)
The Erasers (Les Gommes, 1953)
The Voyeur (Le Voyeur, 1955)
Jealousy (La Jalousie, 1957)
In the Labyrinth (Dans le labyrinthe, 1959)
For a New Novel (Pour un Nouveau Roman, 1963)
Project for a Revolution in New York (1972; Projet pour une revolution a New York 1970)

Jose SARAMAGO (1922-2010)
Note: a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature. --Wikipedia
Baltasar and Blimunda (1987; Memorial do Convento, 1982)
Blindness (1997; Ensaio sobre a Cegueira, 1995)
Comment: The wife of the first man to go blind turns out to be the salvation of the city and perhaps the entire race, because she alone can see and works her way into the gang and overcomes it. There is no explanation of why this has happened and why the plague ends. --Charles Van Doren
The Cave (2002; A Caverna, 2001)
Comment: a love story between a man and a woman who cannot speak to one another until almost the last page. --Charles Van Doren

James JONES (1921-1977) Criticism: Nelson Aldrich interview
Note: an American author known for his explorations of World War II and its aftermath. --Wikipedia
From Here to Eternity (1951)
...Jones's ponderous compendium of service life before and after Pearl Harbor is memorable for furious honesty, at least. --Raphael and McLeish

Leonardo SCIASCIA (1921-1989)
Day of the Owl (1984; Il giorno della civetta, 1961)
Equal Danger (1973; Il contesto, 1971)
The Wine-Dark Sea: Thirteen Stories (1985; (Il mare color del vino, 1973)

Friedrich DURRENMATT (1921-1990)
One star: The Visit (Der Besuch der Alten Dame 1956)
Comment: An old lady with virtually unlimited wealth comes back to a small town to avenge herself on the man who dishonored her. --Philip Ward
The Physicists (Der Physiker 1962)
Comment: three men are found in a lunatic asylum, claiming to be Newton, Einstein and a spokesman for King Solomon. The philosophical seriousness of the theme of social scientists' social responsibilities is intentionally deflated by absurdist techniques. --Philip Ward

John RAWLS (1921-2002)
Note: an American philosopher and a leading figure in moral and political philosophy --Wikipedia
A Theory of Justice (1971)
Note: argues for a principled reconciliation of liberty and equality. ... Rawls offers a model of a fair choice situation (the original position with its veil of ignorance) within which parties would hypothetically choose mutually acceptable principles of justice. --Wikipedia

Stanislaw LEM (1921-2006)
The Investigation (1974; Sledztwo, 1959)
Solaris (1961; trans. 1970)
Comment: Story of a planet which is a sentient creature, capable of creating duplicates from the memories of the earth people who visit it... . --Raphael and McLeish

Betty FRIEDAN (1921-2006)
Note: an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States --Wikipedia
The Feminine Mystique (1963)
Comment: She pictured the average middle-class American woman (she more or less ignored black or working-class women) as leading a life in which she tried to conform to a false image, and thus suffered inevitable unhappiness. --Martin Seymour-Smith
Comment: Friedan seems to assume that men working outside the home are happily fulfilling their deepest human longings in 'meaningful' work as journalists, college professors, advertising executives, airplane pilots, and doctors, rather than engaging in the actual drudgery, the real bone-grinding and mind-numbing toil, which fills the days of almost all actual working men, and which finds them wearily sapped of strength at the end of the day. --Benjamin Wiker

Wilson HARRIS (b. 1921)
Note: a Guyanese writer. He initially wrote poetry, but has since become a well-known novelist and essayist. --Wikipedia
The Guyana Quartet: Palace of the Peacock (1960), The Far Journey of Oudin (1961), The Whole Armour (1962), The Secret Ladder (1963)

Gabriel OKARA (b. 1921)
Note:Nigerian poet and novelist ... The first Modernist poet of Anglophone Africa --Wikipedia
The Fisherman's Invocation (1978)

Janos PILINSZKY (1921-1981) Etext: Poetry Foundation
Note: a Hungarian poet. ...style includes a juxtaposition of Roman Catholic faith and intellectual disenchantment. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1976)
Crater (1978; Krater, 1975)

Andrea ZANZOTTO (1921-2011) Reference: Bedon
Selected Poetry (1975)

Richard WILBUR (1921-2017) Etext: Academy of American Poets | Internet Poetry Archive Criticism: James Longenbach essay
Note: an American poet and literary translator. --Wikipedia
One star: New and Collected Poems (1988) Criticism: David Mason review | Michael Dirda review | Adam Kirsch review
Comment: ...'Love Calls Us to the Things of This World' ... 'Trolling for Blues'... . --Charles Van Doren
Psalm Etext: First Things (May 2009)

John McCABE (1920-2005)
Mr. Laurel and Mr. Hardy: An Affectionate Biography (1961)
Comment: a sumptuous picture book, with stills from every film. --Raphael and McLeish

Keith DOUGLAS (1920-1944) Etext: Poem Hunter
Note: an English poet noted for his war poetry during World War II and his wry memoir of the Western Desert Campaign, Alamein to Zem Zem. --Wikipedia
The Complete Poems (1977)

Paul CELAN (1920-1970) Etext: Mark M. Anderson review
Note: a Romanian poet and translator. ... one of the major German-language poets of the post-World War II era. --Wikipedia
One star: Poems: a Bilingual Edition (1968)
Comment: He attempted to forge a new poetic language which could not be mistaken for the German used and debased by the Nazis. --Philip Ward

Amy CLAMPITT (1920-1994)
Westward (1990)

Julian JAYNES (1920-1997)
Note: an American psychologist, best known for his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), in which he argued that ancient peoples were not conscious. --Wikipedia
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976)

Joan PERUCHO (1920-2003)
Natural History (1988; Les histories naturals, 1960)

Amos TUTUOLA (1920-1997)
One star: The Palm-Wine Drinkard, and his dead Palm-Wine Tapster in the Deads' Town (1952)

Richard ADAMS (1920-2016)
Note: an English novelist --Wikipedia
Watership Down (1972)
Comment: Long, allegorical novel about rabbits; occasional turgidities offset by strong story-line. --Raphael and McLeish
The Girl on a Swing (1980)

A Guide to Oriental Classics
(1st edition 1964) Wm. Theodore de Bary (1919-1917)
Note:an American Sinologist and East Asian literary scholar --Wikipedia
and Ainslee Embree (1921-1917)
Note:an American Indologist and historian --Wikipedia
(2nd edition 1975) Wm. Theodore de Bary and Ainslee Embree, Editors Reference: Table of Contents
(3rd edition 1989) Amy Vladeck Heinrich (b. 1945), Editor of this edition,
Note:American library director. --PraBook
Wm. Theodore de Bary and Ainslee Embree, Editors

Doris LESSING (1919-2013) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Retrospective | Times Topics Criticism: Lorna Sage obituary | post
Note: a British novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer. --Wikipedia
Comment: She has consistently gone underground into a woman's being, into the being of our species, tunneling through memory and myth, through Marxism and madness. --John Leonard
The Golden Notebook (1962)
solemn with determination to give a full account of Modern Woman at the end of her tether. --Raphael and McLeish

Frank KERMODE (1919-2010) Criticism: Kirsty Young interview | Richard Poirier review
Note: a British literary critic --Wikipedia
The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (1967; revised 2003)
The Academy vs. the Humanities Etext: The Atlantic Monthly (August 1997)
Contributor Etext: London Review of Books
Contributor Etext: The New York Review of Books

J. D. SALINGER (1919-2010) Reference: Times Topics Criticism: post
Note: an American writer who won acclaim early in life. He led a very private life for more than a half-century. --Wikipedia
Comment: John Updike said, half in admiration, half in rebuke, that J. D. Salinger loved his characters even more than God did. --Ralph McInerney
Two stars: The Catcher in the Rye (1951) Humor: Onion article
New, liberating tone made The Catcher in the Rye's Holden Caulfield an American archetype--puzzled yet outspoken with a jargon ('big deal') still comic and current. --Raphael and McLeish
Nine Stories (1953)
'A Perfect Day for Bananafish' (1948), 'Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut' (1948), 'Just Before the War with the Eskimos' (1948), 'The Laughing Man' (1949), 'Down at the Dinghy' (1949), 'For Esmé with Love and Squalor' (1950), 'Pretty Mouth and Green My Eyes' (1951), 'De Daumier-Smith's Blue Period' (1952), and 'Teddy' (1953) --ed.
Franny and Zooey (1961)
Comment: Buddy's letter to Zooey is the best and most enduring reminder I have had of the importance of discovering the things that really matter to you, and then doing them with zest because that's the way they deserve to be done. --Avis C. Vidal

Sophia de MELLO BREYNER (1919-2004)
Selected Poems

Iris MURDOCH (1919-1999) Criticism: Brierley | Preece | Taylor | Eilenberg | Jacobs | Oates
Comment: Miss Murdoch often builds her stories round happenings the like of which can be found in Russian novels and which are known as 'scandals.' A group of people is shown in a state of rest, which is suddenly terminated by the setting up of an action, unexpected and probably of arguable legitimacy, by members of the group. Once the group is in a state of motion it suffers irreversible moral and intellectual changes so that when it settles into a state of rest again it is new in substance and it can be said that, by little or by much, the universe is not the same. --Rebecca West
A Severed Head (1961)
a sexual quadrille, 'wish fulfillment' bristling with wit and unnerving observation. --Raphael and McLeish
Bruno's Dream (1969)
Sandcastle (1978)
The Good Apprentice (1985)

Robert PINGET (1919-1997) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a major avant-garde French writer, born in Switzerland, who wrote several novels and other prose pieces that drew comparison to Beckett and other major Modernist writers. He was also associated with the nouveau roman movement. --Wikipedia
Fable (1971; trans. 1980)
The Libera Me Domine (1978; Le Libera, Paris, 1968)
That Voice (1982; Cette Voix, Paris, 1975)

May SWENSON (1919-1989)
New & Selected Things Taking Place (1978)
In Other Words (1987)

Robert DUNCAN (1919-1988)
Bending the Bow (1968)

Primo LEVI (1919-1987)
Note: an Italian Jewish chemist and writer. He was the author of several books and collections of short stories, essays, and poems. --Wikipedia
One star: The Periodic Table (Il sistema periodico, 1975)
Comment: amalgamates chemical metaphor with personal reminiscence and historical documentation. --Sven Birkerts
One star: If Not Now, When? (Se non ora, quando? 1984)
Comment: a novel, although it is based on stories Levi had heard from others about events in the fateful year of 1945. --Charles Van Doren
Collected Poems (Ad ora incerta, 1988)

Jorge de SENA (1919-1978)
Selected Poems

Richard FEYNMAN (1918-1988) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American theoretical physicist ... . For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. --Wikipedia
The Feynman Lectures on Physics (1964, 1966; 1970; 2005) Etext: California Institute of Technology
Comment: Outside of art (or maybe not), physics is mankind's most beautiful achievement; these three volumes are probably the most beautiful ever written about physics. --David Gelernter
Q. E. D. (1985)
Personal Observations on the Reliability of the Shuttle Etext: NASA (June 1986)

Juan Jose ARREOLA (1918-2001 ) Criticism: Obituary
Confabulatorio Total, 1941-1961 (1962)

Fred BODSWORTH (1918-2012)
Note: a Canadian writer, journalist and amateur naturalist. --Wikipedia
Last of the Curlews (1955)
Comment: This book follows one lone Eskimo Curlew as it makes its way through the migration route and looks for a mate. In alternate chapters with this narrative, the author provides scientific reports about the extinction of this species. --Lincoln S. Dall

Alexander SOLZHENITSYN (1918-2008) Criticism: post
One star: One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962) Criticism: Philip Rahv review
Comment: The Day of Ivan Denisovich, as the title reads in Russian, is the first work to break the taboo and to bring into the open the full truth about Russian concentration camps. --Marc Slonim
Two stars: The First Circle (1968) Criticism: Daniel J. Mahoney review
One star: Cancer Ward (1968)
Comment: It becomes vital to have a theory, and world theories, global diagnoses of the body politic or the human state generally, take on, as though of necessity, an importance not usually accorded them by the healthy. --Mary McCarthy
The Gulag Archipelago (1973-1978)
Comment: Marked the absolute final turning point beyond which nobody could deny the evil of the Evil Empire. --Richard John Neuhaus
August 1914 (1984)
A World Split Apart (Harvard, June 8, 1978) Etext: First Principles
The New Generation (1993) Etext: The American Scholar
Miniatures, 1996-99 Etext: First Things (December 2006)

Johannes BOBROWSKI (1917-1965)
Shadow Lands (Schattenland Strome, 1962)

Carson McCULLERS (1917-1967)
Note: an American writer of novels, short stories, plays, essays, and poetry. --Wikipedia
One star: The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (1940) Criticism: Jonathan Yardley review
One star: The Ballad of the Sad Cafe (1951)
Comment: One of the most notable passages in the book occurs when the narrator says that although love is an experience between two persons, it is never a similar experience for lover and beloved. The beloved is primarily a stimulus for the stored-up feelings of the lover, so that every lover eventually realizes that his or her love is actually a solitary thing, personal, inside him- or herself. --Grant L. Voth

Robert LOWELL (1917-1977) Etext: Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets | Bold Type Criticism: Frederick Seidel interview | post
Note: an American poet. ... His biographer Paul Mariani called him "the poet-historian of our time" and "the last of [America's] influential public poets." --Wikipedia
One star: Collected Poems (2003)
Comment: Finely-wrought, haunting and graceful poems of love and loss. --Raphael and McLeish
Buenos Aires Etext: The New York Review of Books (February 1, 1963)

Heinrich BOLL (1917-1985)
Comment: the force of Boll's vision depends most often upon the reductions wrought by fear, confusion, and suffering. That is--to collapse three nouns into one--by war. --Sven Birkerts
Billiards at Half-Past Nine (Billard um halb zehn, 1959)
The Clown (1965; (Ansichten eines Clowns, 1963)

Anthony BURGESS (1917-1993) Reference: Criticism: post
A Clockwork Orange (1962)
Nothing Like the Sun: A Story of Shakespeare's Love Life (1964)

Arthur C. CLARKE (1917-2008) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Notable Names Database | The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation Criticism: post
Note: a British science fiction writer, science writer, undersea explorer, television series host, and inventor. --Wikipedia
Childhood's End (1953)
Comment: Clarke's vision of humanity becoming godlike reached its ultimate in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. But Childhood's End expresses this view with even more coherence; it is remarkable for its compassion. --Raphael and McLeish
Profiles of the Future (1963)
Comment: he forecasts events and discoveries of the next 200 to 300 years. --Raphael and McLeish

Louis AUCHINCLOSS (1917-2010) Criticism: post
The Rector of Justin (1964)
Comment: He is an unduly deprecated author because, while a full-time practicing lawyer and responsible New York citizen, he has written a large number of novels dealing, as did much of Henry James and Edith Wharton, with the upper class, or at least the upper professional class, such as old Wall Street law firms. --David Riesman
Collected Stories (1994)

William H. McNEILL (1917-2016) Criticism: Robert Goodier essay
Note: an American world historian and author, particularly noted for his writings on Western civilization. --Wikipedia
The Rise of the West (1963)
Contributor Etext: The New York Review of Books

Walker PERCY (1916-1990) Reference: Criticism: post
The Moviegoer (1961)
Comment: attempts to express modern philosophy through the literary form of the novel. --Thomas K. McCraw
Lost in the Cosmos (1983)
Comment: True therapy for the therapeutic age. --The Intercollegiate Review

Natalia GINZBURG (1916-1991)
Note: an Italian author whose work explored family relationships, politics during and after the Fascist years and World War II, and philosophy. --Wikipedia
Family Sayings (1967; Lessico famigliare, 1963)

Gavin EWART (1916-1995)
Selected Poems 1933-1993 (1996)

Giorgio BASSANI (1916-2000) Criticism: Jonathan Keates obituary
Note: an Italian novelist, poet, essayist, editor, and international intellectual. --Wikipedia
The Heron (1986)

Anne HEBERT (1916-2000)
Selected Poems (1987)

Camilo Jose CELA (1916-2002)
Note: a Spanish novelist, short story writer and essayist associated with the Generation of '36 movement. --Wikipedia
Journey to the Alcarria (1948; Viaje a la Alcarria)
Comment: Cela called his book 'ancient' in the sense of the classical travel book--offering the truth, simplicity and straightforward description of the new and strange that one finds in the 'Travels of Marco Polo. --Philip Ward
The Hive (La Colmena 1951)

VILLAS-BOAS brothers (Orlando Villas-Boas, 1916-2002, and Claudio Villas-Boas, 1918-1998)
Note: were Brazilian activists regarding indigenous peoples. --Wikipedia
Xingu: the Indians, their Myths (1973)

Saul BELLOW (1915-2005) Etext: Criticism: post
Comment: He was the Jewish Hogarth, excellent at capturing urban grotesques. --Joseph Epstein
One star: The Adventures of Augie March (1953)
Comment: ...a modern picaresque with scenes laid in Chicago, Mexico and Paris. --Clifton Fadiman
One star: Seize the Day (1956)
Henderson the Rain King (1959)
One star: Herzog (1964)
Comment: The position of the 43-year-old hero and title character of Saul Bellow's latest and best novel is absurd. Moses E. Herzog believes in reason, but is suffering from a protracted nervous crisis, following the collapse of his second marriage, that leads him to the brink of suicide. --Julian Moynahan
Comment: Moses Herzog is a forty-seven-year-old intellectual, a womanizer without being a libertine. He spends about a week in a crazy zigzag flight, searching for self-understanding, stability, comprehension of his country and his period. --Clifton Fadiman
Comment: Saul Bellow's novels lifted the veil that hides the dilemmas of modern man; the intellectual, the artist and the humanist. --Abraham Zaleznik
Mr. Sammler's Planet (1970)
Humboldt's Gift (1975)
Comment: The title derives from [protagonist Charlie] Citrine's friend Von Humboldt Fleischer whose sad life is said to be based on that of Delmore Schwartz, a remarkable poet and critic who died in sordid circumstances in 1966. --Clifton Fadiman

Arthur MILLER (1915-2005) Reference: Times Topics Criticism: post
Note: an American playwright and essayist. ... Miller was often in the public eye, particularly during the late 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s, a period during which he testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee, received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, and was married to Marilyn Monroe. --Wikipedia
Two stars: Death of a Salesman (1949)
Comment: The plays of Arthur Miller taught me about survival in a world that is for some tragic heroes a very unfriendly place. --Abraham Zaleznik
The Crucible (1953)
Comment: This play (on witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692) discusses freedom of conscience, and develops it so as to draw parallels with the 20th century (the play was produced shortly after the McCarthy scandal, in the early 1950s). --Raphael and McLeish

Judith WRIGHT (1915-2000) Etext: Poem Hunter Criticism: Ramona Koval interview
Note: an Australian poet, environmentalist and campaigner for Aboriginal land rights. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1963)

Dylan THOMAS (1914-1953) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Reference: Official site Criticism: John Ezard article | Jan Morris review | Andrew Lycett essay
Note: a Welsh poet and writer ... In his later life he acquired a reputation, which he encouraged, as a "roistering, drunken and doomed poet". --Wikipedia
Comment: He's exactly what I would have been if I had not become a Catholic. --Evelyn Waugh
Note: Collected Poems 1934–1953 (2000), Selected Poems (2000) --ed.

Weldon KEES (1914-1955)
Collected Poems (1960)

Randall JARRELL (1914-1965) Criticism: post
Note: an American poet, literary critic, children's author, essayist, novelist, and the 11th Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, a position that now bears the title Poet Laureate. --Wikipedia
Poetry and the Age (1953)
Comment: The book for showing how 20th- century poets think, what their poetry does, and why it matters. --Christopher Caldwell
Pictures from an Institution: A Comedy (1954)
Complete Poems (1969)
Comment: an exceptionally warm-hearted poet, who occupies by temperament the ground between Whitman and Dickinson -- more like Whitman in form, but with Dickinson's sure touch in writing the perfectly natural line. --Raphael and McLeish

John BERRYMAN (1914-1972) Criticism: Edward Hirsch review
Note: an American poet and scholar ... and was considered a key figure in the Confessional school of poetry. --Wikipedia
Comment: Berryman is one of the giants of modern American poetry and--since his poetry is so personal--of the American soul. --Raphael and McLeish
Collected Poems 1937-1971 (1989)
Three Dream Songs Etext: The New York Review of Books (February 1, 1963)

Julio CORTAZAR (1914-1984)
Hopscotch (Rayuela, 1963)
Comment: could be said to represent the application of the principles of cubism to the novel. --Sven Birkerts
All Fires the Fire (Todos los fuegos el fuego, 1966)
Blow-up and Other Stories (1968)
Originally published as 'End of the Game and Other Stories' (1967)

Bernard MALAMUD (1914-1986) Reference: Times Topics Criticism: Daniel Stern interview | post
Note: an American author of novels and short stories. Along with Saul Bellow and Philip Roth, he was one of the best known American Jewish authors of the 20th century --Wikipedia
The Assistant (1957)
Comment: the petty criminal and drifter Frank Alpine, while doing penance behind the counter of a failing grocery store that he'd once helped to rob, has a 'terrifying insight' about himself: 'that all while he was acting like he wasn't, he was a man of stern morality'. --Philip Roth
Comment: The Jewish theme made over for inter-denominational consumption, is Malamud's specialty. --Raphael and McLeish
The Fixer (1966)
The Stories (1983)

John HERSEY (1914-1993) Criticism: Jonathan Dee interview
Note: a Pulitzer Prize-winning American writer and journalist considered one of the earliest practitioners of the so-called New Journalism, in which storytelling techniques of fiction are adapted to non-fiction reportage. --Wikipedia
A Bell for Adano (1944)
One star: Hiroshima (1946)
Comment: Those who were talking about fighting and winning nuclear war clearly had not read Hersey. --Howard Hiatt
The Call (1985)

Ralph ELLISON (1914-1994) Reference: Criticism: post
Two stars: Invisible Man (1947) Study: Chapter summary
Comment: ...may be the the century's most translated, celebrated American novel. --Robert G. O'Meally
Comment: The reader who is familiar with the traumatic phase of the black man's rage in America will find something more in Mr. Ellison's report. He will find the long anguished step toward its mastery. The author sells no phony forgiveness. He asks for none himself. It is a resolutely honest, tormented, American book. --Wright Norris
Shadow and Act (1964)
Comment: Ellison stressed the the particularity of black experience but also the way it embodied the universality of mankind. --Archie C. Evers

Marguerite DURAS (1914-1996) Criticism: post
Note: a French writer and film director. --Wikipedia
One star: The Lover (L'Amant, 1984)
Comment: It is not, as some reviewers have suggested, a straight-faced remake of Lolita. The bond between these lovers is more existential than erotic. Indeed, the obsessive intensity of their coupling hints, according to minimalist precepts of exclusion, at the pervasiveness of the despair. --Sven Birkerts
Four Novels (1994): The Square (1959; Le Square, 1955); Moderato Cantabile (1955, trans. 1977); 10:30 on a Summer Night (1961; Dix heures et demie du soir en ete, 1960); The Afternoon of Mr. Andesmas (1964; L'apres-midi de M. Andesmas, 1960)

Octavio PAZ (1914-1998) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Stephen Schwartz review | Alfred Mac Adam interview
Note: a Mexican poet-diplomat and writer. For his body of work, he was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. --Wikipedia
One star: The Labyrinth of Solitude (El laberinto de la soledad, 1950)
Posdata (1970)
Configurations (1971)
The Collected Poems 1957-1987 (1987)
Comment: The dominant mood in Paz’s poems – one of the forms of coherence behind the many voices – is not doubt or disillusionment or consolation, but openness to adventure, to the sense of dangers worth courting. --Michael Wood

Patrick O'BRIAN (1914-2000)
Note: born Richard Patrick Russ, was an English novelist and translator --Wikipedia
Aubrey-Maturin series (Master and Commander, 1970-21 [U.S.] or The Final Unfinished Voyage of Jack Aubrey, 2004)
Comment: Jack and Stephen were--still are, of course--a wonderful pair. But so are many of the other persons in this great series of books. --Charles Van Doren

Comment: 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War
Comment: The year 1913 was more than the unofficial start of the twentieth century. It was a highpoint in both European and American cultural innovation. --James Panero

Albert CAMUS (1913-1960) Reference: Paul M. Willenberg fan site Criticism: Paul Berman review | post
Note: a French Nobel Prize winning author, journalist, and philosopher. ... Camus was born in French Algeria to a Pied-Noir family. --Wikipedia
The Myth of Sisyphus (1942)
Comment: It is the perfect book for a young, searching mind concerned with the problems of identity and the meaning of existence. --Orlando Patterson
Three stars: The Stranger (L'Etranger 1942)
Comment: Because he does not pretend, he is a stranger whom no one understands, and he pays with his life for his affront to society. Since he refuses to play the game, he is isolated from his fellow-men to the point of incomprehensibility and isolated from himself to the point of becoming inarticulate. --Hannah Arendt
Comment: exemplifies the stoicism, bordering both existentialism and fatalism, which Camus advocated. An ordinary man commits a senseless murder, for which he is condemned. --Philip Ward
Comment: ...Camus eliminated formal conditions of 'character' and, in Meursault, 'invented' a hero without heroic attributes or psychological coherence. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars:The Plague (La Peste 1947)
Comment: The Plague is parable and sermon, and should be considered as such. To criticize it by standards which apply to most fiction would be to risk condemning it for moralizing, which is exactly where it it strongest. --Stephen Spender
Comment: at one level describes a city infected with plague, but can also be read as an allegory of Europe under Hitler's occupation. --Philip Ward
Comment: ...the apocalypse in Oran, foreshadowing the Algerian bloodbath. --Raphael and McLeish
The Rebel (L'Homme revolte 1951)
One star: The Fall (La Chute 1956)
Comment: shows a marked ideological change. Beneath the irony and blasphemy, Camus is now pleading for recognition of our sinful nature and hope of Grace. --Philip Ward
Neither Victims Nor Executioners (Dwight Macdonald translation; Ni Victimes, ni bourreaux), in Combat, November 1946) Etext: Peace Pledge Union
Banquet Speech (December 10, 1957) Etext: Nobel Prize

Delmore SCHWARTZ (1913-1966)
Summer Knowledge: New and Selected Poems (1959)

Robert HAYDEN (1913-1980) Criticism: Hirsch
Collected Poems (1984)

Barbara PYM (1913-1980) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English novelist. In the 1950s she wrote a series of social comedies ... In 1977 her career was revived when the biographer David Cecil and the poet Philip Larkin both nominated her as the most under-rated writer of the century. --Wikipedia
Excellent Women (1952)
An Unsuitable Attachment (1982)

Salvador ESPRIU (1913-1985)
La Pell de Brau: Poems (1987)

Sandor WEORES (1913-1989) Etext: Hungarian Literature Online
Note: a Hungarian poet and author. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1970)

Robertson DAVIES (1913-1995) Etext: Criticism: post
One star: Deptford Trilogy: Fifth Business (1970); The Manticore (1972); World of Wonders (1975);
One star: Cornish Trilogy: The Rebel Angels (1981); What's Bred in the Bone (1985); The Lyre of Orpheus (1988)

Aime CESAIRE (1913-2008) Reference:
Note: a Francophone poet, author and politician from Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the negritude movement in Francophone literature".--Wikipedia
Collected Poetry (1983)
Comment: Revolutionary Negro poetry of marvellous fineness and precision. --Raphael and McLeish

Claude SIMON (1913-2005)
The Wind (1959; Le Vent, 1957)
The Grass (1960; L'Herbe, 1958)
The Flanders Road (1961; La Route des Flandres, 1960)

R. S. THOMAS (1913-2000) Reference:
Note: a Welsh poet and Anglican priest who was noted for his nationalism, spirituality and deep dislike of the anglicisation of Wales. --Wikipedia

Jean GARRIGUE (1912-1972)
Selected Poems (1992)

John CHEEVER (1912-1982) Criticism: Brad Leithauser essay | James Wolcott essay | Annette Grant interview | post
Note: an American novelist and short story writer. He is sometimes called "the Chekhov of the suburbs". --Wikipedia
Bullet Park (1969)
One star: Collected Stories (1978)
Comment: Evocative stories about quietly desperate New York commuters: wives meeting the train with a double Martini in the hand; children, all-knowing, concocting fiendish plots. --Raphael and McLeish

Nigel DENNIS (1912-1989)
Cards of Identity (1955)

Mary McCARTHY (1912-1989) Criticism: Hilton Kramer review | Elisabeth Sifton interview
Note: an American author, critic and political activist. --Wikipedia
The Groves of Academe (1952)
The Group (1963)
The a clef elements lend piquancy to the paying off of old scores among New York Trotskyites, intellectuals and climbers.--Raphael and McLeish

Lawrence DURRELL (1912-1990) Reference: International Lawrence Durrell Society Criticism: post
Reflections on a Marine Venus (1953)
The Alexandria Quartet: Justine (1957), Balthazar (1958), Mountolive (1958), Clea (1960)
Comment: Gradiose composition, supposedly Einsteinian in its literary 'relativity' gaudy, often splendid style. --Raphael and McLeish

Patrick WHITE (1912-1990) Reference: Complete Review
Note: an English-born Australian writer who is widely regarded as one of the most important English-language novelists of the 20th century. --Wikipedia
One star: Voss (1957)
Comment: The Australian novelist, with Voss--an account of a doomed explorer crossing the continent in the 1880s--his masterwork... . --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Riders in the Chariot (1961)
Comment: attempts grandiloquently and majestically to grapple with anti-Semitism. --Raphael and McLeish
A Fringe of Leaves (1976)
Comment: tells a shipwreck story upon the shores of an as yet uncolonised Australia. The characters who survive the shipwreck are then captured by Aborigines and must adapt to a lifestyle quite unlike the one left behind --Doug Anderson

Northrop FRYE (1912-1991) Reference: Northrop Frye Centre Criticism: Marchand
Fables of Identity (1963)

Edmond JABES (1912-1991)
The Book of Questions (1976)
If There Were Anywhere But Desert (selected poems, 1988)

Eugene IONESCO (1912-1994) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Romanian playwright who wrote mostly in French, and one of the foremost figures of the French Avant-garde theatre. --Wikipedia
Comment: Surreal parody of drama itself; hilarious surface masks bleak philosophy... . --Raphael and McLeish
The Bald Soprano (La Cantatrice chauve, 1948)
The Chairs (Les Chaises, 1952)
The Lesson (La Lecon, 1951)
Victims of Duty (Victimes du devoir, 1953)
Amedee, or How to Get Rid of It (Amedee ou comment s'en debarrasser, 1954)
Rhinoceros (1959)

F. T. PRINCE (1912-2003)
Collected Poems 1935-1992 (1993)

Tillie OLSEN (1912-2007) Reference: Modern American Poetry
Tell Me a Riddle (1956-1960)

Naguib MAHFOUZ (1911-2006) Criticism: Daniel Pipes review | Charlotte El Shabrawy interview | post
Note: an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literature --Wikipedia
Midaq Alley (1947)
Miramar (1967)
Fountain and Tomb (1988)

Brian O'NOLAN (1911-1966) Etext: The Online Books Page | Open Library
Note: an Irish novelist, playwright and satirist, considered a major figure in twentieth century Irish literature. ... His English language novels, such as At Swim-Two-Birds, and The Third Policeman, were written under the nom de plume Flann O'Brien. His many satirical columns in The Irish Times and an Irish language novel An Beal Bocht were written under the name Myles na gCopaleen. --Wikipedia
The Dalkey Archive (1964)
The Third Policeman (1968)

Mervyn PEAKE (1911-1968)
The Gormenghast Trilogy: Titus Groan (1946); Gormenghast (1950); Titus Alone (1959)

Alves REDOL (1911-1969)
Note: one of the most influential Portuguese neorealist writers. --Wikipedia
The Man with Seven Names (L. L. Barrett translation 1964, A barca dos sete lemes, 1959)
Comment: A neo-realist Portuguese novel of great length and detail, in which a poor man, Alcides, is changed by circumstances into a murderer. --Philip Ward

Elizabeth BISHOP (1911-1979) Etext: Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Dana Gioia essay | Cynthia Haven essay | Elizabeth Spires interview
Note: an American poet and short-story writer. --Wikipedia
Comment: ..."Faustina: or Rock Roses" ... "The Fish" ... "Sestina" ... "One Art" ... . --Charles Van Doren
One star: The Fish (1946)
One star: Faustina: or Rock Roses (The Nation, Feb. 22, 1947)
One star: Sestina (1956)
The Complete Poems (1983)
Comment: Throughtout her career Bishop aimed to bring morality and invention together in a single thought. --David Bromwich
One Art: Letters (1994) Criticism: Elizabeth Spires review

Tennessee WILLIAMS (1911-1983) Criticism: post
Note: an American playwright, author of many stage classics. ... Williams adapted much of his best work for the cinema, and also wrote short stories, poetry, essays and a volume of memoirs. --Wikipedia
Two stars: The Glass Menagerie (1945)
Two stars: A Streetcar Named Desire (1947)
Comment: Set in the French quarter of New Orleans, with characters and dialogue as lush and exuberant as the place itself. --Raphael and McLeish
Summer and Smoke (1948)

Max FRISCH (1911-1991)
One star: I'm Not Stiller (Stiller 1954)
Comment: Anatol Stiller could insist, against all evidence, that he was not the Stiller who had abandoned his wife. In the absence of a deeper contact with the self, a man is just what he tells and what he makes others believe. --Sven Birkerts
Andorra (1961)
Comment: attacks anti-Semitism, prejudice and complacency in society. --Philip Ward
Man in the Holocene (1979)
Comment: An old man is alone in his house in the mountains during a storm; he takes a foolhardy walk; he suffers bouts of memory loss. As he tacks up bits of information from the encyclopedia, we are given--once again in collage form--all manner of facts about the age of the earth, fossils, climate, evolution, geologic transformation. --Sven Birkerts

William GOLDING (1911-1993) Official web site
Note: an English novelist, poet, playwright and Nobel Prize in Literature laureate --Wikipedia
One star: Lord of the Flies (1954)
Comment: a devilish Coral Island: British prep school boys marooned on a desert island, a classic of malign vision by a Catholic apologist. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: Golding pointed to a darkness of the soul buried within us... --Roderick MacFarquhar
Pincher Martin (1956)
Comment: a tour de force about a drowning sailor: melodramatic notions redeemed by fastidious imagination. --Raphael and McLeish
The Spire (1964)

Emile M. CIORAN (1911-1995) Reference: Criticism: post
A Short History of Decay (1949)
The Temptation to Exist (1956)
The Fall into Time (1964)
The New Gods (1969)

Odysseas ELYTIS (1911-1996)
What I Love: Selected Poems (1986)

Faiz Ahmed FAIZ (1911-1984)

Czeslaw MILOSZ (1911-2004) Etext: Internet Poetry Archive Criticism: Jeremy Driscoll essay | Hilton Kramer obituary | Leon Wieseltier obituary | Raymond H. Anderson obituary | Modris Eksteins review
Note: a Polish poet, prose writer, and translator of Lithuanian origin. ... he defected to the West in 1951 --Wikipedia
The Captive Mind (Jane Zielonko translation; Zniewolony umysl, 1953)
Comment: It's subject is the 'vulnerability', as Milosz called it, of the twentieth-century mind to seduction by sociopolitical doctrines and its readiness to accept totalitarian terror for the sake of a hypothetical future. --Charles Van Doren
Selected Poems: 1931-2004 (2006)
Distance Etext: First Things (November 2004)

Anatoli RYBAKOV (1911-1998)
Children of the Arbat (1987)

Comment: Virginia Woolf famously remarked that the world changed in or around 1910. --Michael Dirda

Wilfred THESIGER (1910-2003)
The Marsh Arabs (1964)

Paul BOWLES (1910-1999)
One star: The Sheltering Sky (1948)

Wright MORRIS (1910-1998) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Olga Carlisle and Jody Ireland interview
Note: an American novelist, photographer, and essayist. He is known for his portrayals of the people and artifacts of the Great Plains --Wikipedia
Ceremony in Lone Tree (1960)

Subrahmanyan CHANDRASEKHAR (1910-1995)
An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure (1939)

Jean ANOUILH (1910-1987) Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
Antigone (1944)
Eurydice (1942)
The Rehearsal (1961; La repetition ou l'amour puni 1950)
Becket, or The Honour of God (1960; Becket, ou l'honneur de Dieu 1959)

Jean GENET (1910-1986)
Our Lady of the Flowers (Notre Dame des Fleurs 1944)
The Thief's Journal (Journal du voleur 1949)
The Balcony (Le Balcon 1957)

Robert FITZGERALD (1910-1985) Etext: Poetry Foundation
Note: a poet, critic and translator whose renderings of the Greek classics "became standard works for a generation of scholars and students." --Wikipedia
Spring Shade: Poems 1931-1970 (1971) Etext: Google Books
Note: brings together all of his previous collections-Poems (1935), A Wreath for the Sea (1943), In the Rose of Time (1956)-and adds to them two dozen later poems and a generous sampling from the wide range of his translations. --Barnes & Noble

Chaim GRADE (1910-1982)
The Yeshiva (1976-1977)

Jose LEZAMA Lima (1910-1976)
Note: a Cuban writer and poet who is considered one of the most influential figures in Latin American literature. --Wikipedia
Paradiso (1966)

Jacques MONOD (1910-1976)
One star: Chance and Necessity (1971)

Charles OLSON (1910-1970) Reference: Electronic Poetry Center
The Maximus Poems (1983)
Collected Poems (1987)

Richard M. WEAVER (1910-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American scholar ... He is primarily known as an intellectual historian, political philosopher and a shaper of mid- 20th century conservatism and as an authority on modern rhetoric. --Wikipedia
Ideas Have Consequences (1948)

Margaret Wise BROWN (1910-1952) Reference: Amy Gary fan site
Note: a prolific American writer of children's books --Wikipedia
Goodnight Moon (1947)
Comment: It is the perfect 'bedtime story', although it is not a story at all. ... One by one the bunny says goodnight to all the things in his room, in his world. --Charles Van Doren

Miguel HERNANDEZ (1910-1942) Etext: Poetry in Translation | U Chicago Press
Selected Poems (2001)

Malcolm LOWRY (1909-1937)
Under the Volcano (1947)
Comment: It is perhaps the most single-mindedly intense novel ever written. ... The themes--if we imagine we are writing a book report--are themes of doom (private and collective), death, salvation versus damnation, Sin (capitalized), expulsion from Eden, and, in the last analysis, the wonder and mystery of all the above. --Sven Birkerts

Miklos RADNOTI (1909-1944)
Subway Stops (1978)
Forced March (1979)

James AGEE (1909-1955) Reference: I Hear America Singing | Perspectives in American Literature Criticism: post
Note: an American author, journalist, poet, screenwriter and film critic. In the 1940s, he was one of the most influential film critics in the U.S. --Wikipedia
Permit Me Voyage (1934)
One star: Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941, with photographs by Walker Evans)
Comment: Its descriptive power (three tenant families in Alabama, 1936) is unsurpassed in exhibiting 'the cruel radiance of what is'. --Richard R. Niebuhr
Agee on Film (1948) and Agee on Film II (1952) Etext: Rotten Tomatoes review excerpt links
Comment: By common consent, the movie pieces are the best ever written by an American, with only one weakness: Agee was reviewing from 1943 to 1948, probably the dullest period in Hollywood screen history. --Michael Dirda

Merce RODOREDA (1909-1983)
The Time of the Doves (La placa del diamant 1962)

Yannis RITSOS (1909-1990)
Note: a Greek poet and left-wing activist and an active member of the Greek Resistance during World War II. --Wikipedia
Exile and Return: Selected Poems 1967-1974 (1985)

Wallace STEGNER (1909-1993) Reference: Times Topics
The Big Rock Candy Mountain (1943)
Angle of Repose (1971)

Ernst Hans GOMBRICH (1909-2001) Criticism: post
One star: The Story of Art (1950)
Comment: [H]e made it a mission to put the study of art on a scientific footing. --The Economist
Comment: It is a work of deceptive simplicity, discussing artistic change not in terms of style but of the practical problems that artists faced and of the means that they adopted to solve them, and it is written with extreme clarity. --Charles Hope
Comment: a faultless exposition of the essentials of (mainly Western) art history by a Viennese whose grasp of psychology and music, classical scholarship and modern experimentation, is surely unrivalled. --Philip Ward
Art and Illusion (1961)
Comment: laid to rest the claim of Ruskin and later criticism that the best painters of nature had learned to look with an 'innocent eye', uncontaminated by concepts or knowledge. --James Ackerman

Eudora WELTY (1909-2001) Criticism: Jay Tolson essay | Linda Kuehl interview
Note: an American author of short stories and novels about the American South. --Wikipedia
The Robber Bridegroom (1942)
Delta Wedding (1946)
Comment: Decorous, scintillating portrayal of Mississippi aristocratic family in the 1920s. --Raphael and McLeish
The Ponder Heart (1954)
Two stars: Thirteen Stories (1965)
Comment: These perfect gems evoke a particular Southern rural culture--the 'sense of place' that Welty has said is so important to her work--at the same time they reveal mythic, universal human themes and longings. --Elizabeth McKinsey

Peter DRUCKER (1909-2005) Reference: The Drucker Exchange weblog at The Drucker Institute Criticism: post
Note: an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation. He was also a leader in the development of management --Wikipedia
The Concept of the Corporation (1945)
The Age of Discontinuity (1969)
Comment: Lucid discussion of the wider issues at the heart of the new economy: micro technology, industrial pluralism, mass leisure, the multinational economic state. --Raphael and McLeish
A Key to American Politics: Calhoun's Pluralism (The Review of Politics, October 1948) Etext: JSTOR
The Age of Social Transformation Etext: The Atlantic (May 1994)
Really Reinventing Government Etext: The Atlantic (February 1995)
Beyond the Information Revolution Etext: The Atlantic (October 1999)
Contributor Etext: Harvard Business Review

Rene DAUMAL (1908-1944)
Mount Analogue (Le mont analogue 1952)

Cesare PAVESE (1908-1950)
Hard Labor: Poems (Lavorare stanca 1936, 1943)
Dialogues with Lueco (Dialoghi con Leuco 1947)

Richard WRIGHT (1908-1960) Etext: The Online Books Page | Modern American Poetry Criticism: post
Note: an African-American author of sometimes controversial novels, short stories, poems, and non-fiction. --Wikipedia
One star: Native Son (1940)
Comment: Mr. Wright's Bigger Thomas is far beyond and outside of helpful social agencies. He represents an impasse rather than a complex, and his tragedy is to be born into a black and immutable minority race, literally, in his own words, 'whipped before you born.' --Peter Monro Jack
One star: Black Boy (1945)
Comment: This book, aptly subtitled "American Hunger," is Wright's account of his tumultuous upbringing in the Jim Crow American South and his subsequent exodus to Chicago. The "Hunger" refers to both a physical hunger of poverty and a mental hunger for knowledge. --Jeffrey Leach

Elio VITTORINI (1908-1966)
Women of Messina (Le donne de Messina 1949)

Joao GUIMARAES Rosa (1908-1967)
Sagarana (1946)
The Devil to Pay in the Backlands (1956)

Tommaso LANDOLFI (1908-1979)
Note: an Italian author, translator and literary critic. His numerous grotesque tales and novels, sometimes on the border of speculative fiction, science fiction and realism, place him in a unique and unorthodox position among Italian writers. --Wikipedia
Gogol's Wife and Other Stories (1963) Etext: Encounter (February 1958)

Theodore ROETHKE (1908-1983)
Collected Poems (1961)
Straw for the Fire: From the Notebooks of Theodore Roethke, 1943-63 (1972)

Simone de BEAUVOIR (1908-1986)
Two stars: The Second Sex (1953)
Comment: The main themes are introduced at once. Women throughout history have been a disadvantaged group like the proletariat. --Clyde Kluckhorn

Rene CHAR (1908-1988)
Note: a 20th-century French poet. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1992)

Joseph MITCHELL (1908-1996) Criticism: Emily d’Aulaire review
Up in the Old Hotel (1992) Criticism: Christopher Carduff review

Leo ROSTEN (1908-1997)
Note: a teacher and academic, but is best known as a humorist in the fields of scriptwriting, storywriting, journalism and Yiddish lexicography. --Wikipedia
The Education of Hyman Kaplan, by Leonard Q. Ross (1931)
Comment: Mr. Kaplan is in a class taught by a professor of English for students wishing to learn the language. He signs all his papers with the asterisks because, he says, the teacher will notice him better. He has no problem being noticed because he drives the teacher crazy with his sly comprehension of more than the teacher realizes. --Charles Van Doren
The Joys of Yiddish (1988)
Comment: it is one of the most expressive languages in the world and includes many typical gestures. --Charles Van Doren

Claude LEVI-STRAUSS (1908-2009) Reference: Times Topics Criticism: post
One star: A World on the Wane (John Russell translation 1961; Tristes Tropiques 1955)
Structural Anthropology (1963; Anthropologie structurale 1958)
The Savage Mind (1966; La Pensee sauvage 1962)
One star: The Raw and the Cooked (1969; Le Cru et le cuit 1964; from Mythologiques I–IV)
Comment: His explanation of the 'reality' behind the mythology of primitive cultures, especially those of South America, created a revolution in the study of myths. --Raphael and McLeish

Jacques BARZUN (1907-2012) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Edward Rothstein obituary | Charlotte Hays interview
Note: a French-born American historian of ideas and culture. ... perhaps best known as a philosopher of education. --Wikipedia
Clio and the doctors: psycho-history, quanto-history, & history (1974)
Teacher in America (1945) Criticism: Maxine McClintock essay
Berlioz and the Romantic Century (1950)
Comment: An important critic of 19th-century art in all its forms here concentrates on one of the great enigmatic composers of the last century. --Raphael and McLeish

Rachel CARSON (1907-1964)
The Sea Around Us (1951)
One star: Silent Spring (1962)
Comment: For all the excesses of the environmental movement, the realization that human technology can permanently damage the earth's environment marked a great advance in civilization. --Michael Lind

Louis MACNEICE (1907-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Irish poet and playwright. He was part of the generation of "thirties poets" that included W. H. Auden, Stephen Spender and Cecil Day-Lewis, nicknamed "MacSpaunday" as a group --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1966)
Comment: His finest poems were early and late; his work had honesty and sober intelligence; his reputation goes on increasing, and rightly. --Raphael and McLeish

Gunnar EKELOF (1907-1968)
Dikter (1965)
Diwan over Fursten av Emgion (1965; "Diwan on the King of Emgion")
Sagan om Fatumeh (1966; "The Tale of Fatumeh")
One star: Guide to the Underworld (Vagvisare till underforden 1967)

Gunter EICH (1907-1972)
Pigeons and Moles: Selected Writings (1991)

W. H. AUDEN (1907-1973) Etext: Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Reference: The W. H. Auden Society Criticism: post
Note: an Anglo-American poet, born in England, later an American citizen, regarded by many critics as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. --Wikipedia
Musee des Beaux Arts (1938)
In Memory of W. B. Yeats (1939)
The Enchafed Flood: The Romantic Iconography of the Sea (1950)
The Shield of Achilles (1955)
Comment: The shield of Achilles in Homer has emblazoned upon it the triumphs of the future. Auden, looking into the shield, sees the horrors of the modern state. --Karl Shapiro
One star: The Dyer's Hand (1962) Criticism: John Berryman review
Comment: his literary essays bring his expertise intelligently and practically to bear on other poets, from Shakespeare to Cavafy, and allows his unschematic wit to play ingeniously and informatively among the great and the fugitive. --Raphael and McLeish
Forewords and Afterwords (1973)
One star: Collected Poems (1991)
Comment: Into his intricate metaphysical verse he cunningly introduces the vernacular and creates the unique Auden poetic sentence. Thus his work is full of linguistic surprises, often turning on near-rhymes or odd alliterations. --Clifton Fadiman
Comment: The best one-volume introduction to Auden's poetry is Selected Poems: Expanded Edition, edited by Edward Mendelson, which reprints everything as it originally appeared --Michael Dirda

Robert A. HEINLEIN (1907-1988) Criticism: post
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (1966)

Daphne DU MAURIER (1907-1989) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: DuMaurier.org fan site
Note: an English author and playwright. --Wikipedia
Rebecca (1938)
Comment: a far more complex work of art than is commonly believed, being one of the half-dozen greatest romance novels of the century and a subtle undercutting of the whole romance genre. --Michael Dirda

Alberto MORAVIA (1907-1990)
1934 (1982)

Maurice BLANCHOT (1907-2003) Criticism: Norman Mararasz obituary
Thomas the Obscure (Thomas l'Obscur 1941)

T. H. WHITE (1906-1964) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Moulder and Schaefer fan site
Note: an English author best known for his sequence of Arthurian novels --Wikipedia
The Once and Future King (1958)
Note: the boy Arthur becomes king and attempts to quell the prevalent "might makes right" attitude with his idea of chivalry. But in the end, even chivalry comes undone since its justice is maintained by force. --Wikipedia
Comment: Compendious (700-page) fantasy on the life of King Arthur. White's combination of slapstick and erudition is unique--as if Laurel and Hardy were set down in a Middle Ages exact to the last detail. --Raphael and McLeish

Michael INNES (J. I. M. Stewart 1906-1994)
Operation Pax also known as The Paper Thunderbolt (1951)

Dino BUZZATI (1906-1972)
The Tartar Steppe (1952; Il deserto dei Tratari 1945)
Comment: Giovanni Drogo is sent to the Bastiani Fortress, on the edge of the Tartar steppe, and he waits for the Tartar to attack. --Philip Ward

Dwight MACDONALD (1906-1982) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Geoffrey Wheatcroft essay
Note: a U.S. writer, editor, film critic, social critic, philosopher, and political radical. --Wikipedia
Masscult and Midcult (Partisan Review, Spring 1960) Etext: American Studies at the University of Virginia Criticism: Scott McLemee review | Franklin Foer review | Jennifer Szalai review
By Cozzens Possessed: A Review of Reviews (Commentary, January 1958) Etext: John Derbyshire Criticism: Joseph Epstein review
Contributor Etext: The New York Review of Books

William EMPSON (1906-1984)
Note: an English literary critic and poet, widely influential for his practice of closely reading literary works, a practice fundamental to New Criticism. --Wikipedia
Some Versions of Pastoral (1935)
Comment: Witty, difficult poems, full of dead-pan jokes and intellectual fireworks. --Raphael and McLeish
Milton's God (1961)
Collected Poems (1984)

Samuel BECKETT (1906-1989) Reference: The Samuel Beckett End Page Criticism: Tim Parks review essay | post
Comment: with his effort to be an artist working ultimately with a silent mankind, because the 'silent God' has been used up... --Philip Rieff
Comment: He's telling us life is meaningless again. --Peter Mullen
Murphy (1938)
One star: Molloy (1947)
Comment: The novel reduced to literature; the skeleton as flesh; the flesh made words; words in a state of decomposition. --Raphael and McLeish
Malone Dies (Malone meurt 1953)
One star: The Unnamable (L'innommable 1953)
Watt (1953)
Two stars: Waiting for Godot (1953; En attendant Godot 1948-1949)
Comment: Two tramps (play originally conceived for Laurel and Hardy in old age) wait by the roadside for Godot, whoever he may be. Their crosstalk, with interruption, is like a sketch from an existentialist, esoteric revue. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Endgame (1957; Fin de partie 1955-1957)
One star: Krapp's Last Tape (1959)
How It Is (1961)

Henry ROTH (1906-1995) Criticism: post
Note: an American novelist and short story writer. --Wikipedia
Call It Sleep (1934)
Comment: does tell, dramatically for all its mass of detail, the true story if not the real one, of a newborn personality struggling desperately to salvage a place for itself and its dream out of the welter and squalor of the 'melting pot'. --H. W. Boynton

R. K. NARAYAN (1906-2001) Study: Reference: Criticism: post
The English Teacher (1945)
The Guide (1958)
The Vendor of Sweets (1967)

Leopold Sedar SENGHOR (1906-2001)
One star: Selected Poems (1977)

Jozsef ATTILA (1905-1937) Etext: Fan site
Works (1973)
Selected Poems and Texts (1973)
Perched on Nothing's Branch (1987)

Robert BYRON (1905-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: William Dalrymple review
Note: a British travel writer --Wikipedia
The Road to Oxiana (1937)
Comment: appears to be a haphazard journal of Byron's travels in Persia and Afghanistan during the early 1930s. In fact, the text is carefully composed, though deliberately fragmented, and in this resembles the works of Joyce and Eliot. --Michael Dirda

John O'HARA (1905-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: James Wolcott review
Note: an American writer. He earned a reputation first for short stories and became a best-selling novelist ... a keen observer of social status and class differences, and wrote frequently about the socially ambitious. --Wikipedia
One star: Appointment at Samarra (1934)
O'Hara's Middle-America became an imaginary province stocked with closely observed and remembered figures, a heartland lovingly overdrawn. --Raphael and McLeish
Butterfield 8 (1935)
One star: Collected Stories (1985)
Comment: O'Hara's stories are legion, and despite the flaws and cheapness, provide a panoramic view of East Coast American society which is proving more and more truthful as the lid comes off the USA. --Raphael and McLeish

Henry GREEN (Henry Vincent Yorke 1905-1974) Criticism: Brooke Allen review
Comment: Henry Green worked as a factory manager but was also an upper-class contemporary of the slightly envious Waugh; he wrote unpatronizingly tender, comic and economical studies of British life. --Raphael and McLeish
Party Going (1939)
Loving (1945)
Nothing (1950)

Jean-Paul SARTRE (1905-1980) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Criticism: post
Note: a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology --Wikipedia
Comment: The Sartrian consciousness is solitary, self-translucid, and alienated in matter, and as a result of scarcity, each man becomes the enemy of every other. --Irving Louis Horowitz
One star: Nausea (La Nausee, 1938) Etext: Sterf [pdf]
Comment: the semi-autobiographical hero Antoine Roquentin finds himself trapped in the viscosity of existence. The recognition of his own existence is a point of crisis in a man's life to which he must relate. --Philip Ward
One star: Being and Nothingness (1943)
Comment: Dense terminological thickets alternate with vivid insights and penetrating descriptions of human folly and foibles. Impassioned, atheistic existentialism. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: According to Sartre, all attempts to incorporate the other into my world as another subject, i.e. to apprehend him at once as an object for me and as a subject for whom I am an object, are unstable and doomed to collapse into one or the other of the two aspects. --Thomas Nagel
One star: No Exit (Huis Clos, 1945) Etext: Evergreen Keefer workshop
Existentialism (L'Existentialisme est un humanisme 1946, translated by Bernard Frechtman)
Saint Genet, Actor and Martyr (1952)
Comment: Existentialist biography of the criminal and playwright Jean Genet. Though long and analytico-rhetorical, it presents an interesting alternative to the Anglo-Saxon tradition of empirical biography. --Raphael and McLeish
Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960)
Comment: As with the 'Phenomenology' [of Hegel], everything is here, but now after we know we can know nothing in the way Marx and Freud wanted to know everything. --Duncan Kennedy
The Words (Les Mots, 1964)
The Family Idiot (L'Idiot de la famille, 1971–1972)
Existentialism and Human Emotions (Bernard Frechtman translation, 1957) Etext: Sterf [pdf] Study: David Banach lecture

Kenneth REXROTH (1905-1982) Etext: Kenneth Rexroth Archive Criticism: Morgan Gibson poem [pdf]
Classics Revisited (1968) Etext: Selections Reference: Table of Contents
More Classics Revisited (1989) Etext: Selections Reference: Table of Contents

Robert Penn WARREN (1905-1989) Criticism: post
Understanding Poetry (1938, with Cleanth BROOKS)
Comment: textbook by two of the brightest lights of the most important literary group in America this century-the Vanderbilt agrarians --The Intercollegiate Review
One star: All the King's Men (1946)
Comment: It's a novel principally concerned with individuals and their pasts; and it too reveals how history defines (and often burdens) us in dealing with the present. But it's also a novel about politics, and few works of literature convey as clearly the elemental forces that politics can at times unleash. --Alan Brinkley
World Enough and Time (1950)
Selected Poems

Anthony POWELL (1905-2000) Criticism: Benjamin Schwarz review | Brooke Allen review
According to his memoirs, Powell rhymes with pole (not towel). --Wikipedia
A Dance to the Music of Time (12 vol., 1951-1975): A Question of Upbringing (1951)
Comment: Suggests that a life of reflection and observation is to be prized as much as a life of action and that life's meaning is to be found in the accumulation of small events and triumphs (often only dimly perceived) rather than in high moments of bombast and tangible riches. --James Hodgson

Pierre KLOSSOWSKI (1905-2001)
The Laws of Hospitality: The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1959); Roberte, ce soir (1954); Le Souffler (1960)
The Baphomet (1965)

Vladimir HOLAN (1905-1980)
Selected Poems (1971)

Ondra LYSOHORSKY (1905-1989) Etext: All Poetry
Note: a Czech poet of Silesian origin and awareness. He is known for his works written in Lach language (intermediate dialect between Czech and Polish) which was systematized and practically created as literary language by him. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1971)
Comment: His native language is Lachian, and he has also written in German, but he has always been under considerable political pressure to write in Czech or Slovak, and it was as recently as 1958 that the first part of his collected poems appeared in Lachian, no further parts being allowed to appear, in the erroneous belief that Lysohorsky's aim was Lachian separatism. --Philip Ward

Eric Walter WHITE (1905-1985)
Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (1966; revised 1985)
Comment: Admirable clarity; exhausting thoroughness; elegant, clear style. --Raphael and McLeish

Nancy MITFORD (1904-1973)
Madame de Pompadour (1954)

Pablo NERUDA (1904-1973) Criticism: Lisa Gorton review | Tishani Doshi review | Stephen Schwartz review
Note: the pen name and, later, legal name of the Chilean poet, diplomat and politician Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto. ... In 1971 Neruda won the Nobel Prize for Literature. --Wikipedia
One star: Canto General (1950)
Comment: a more universal figure than either [Cervantes or Garcia Marquez] in his radical view of the task of Latin American artists and intellectuals. --Philip Ward
Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair (1969; 20 Poemas de amor y Cancion desperada 1924)
Selected Poems (1994)
Fully Empowered (2001)
Residence on Earth/Residencia en la Tierra (2004)

S. J. PERELMAN (1904-1979) Criticism: Richard Corliss essay | William Cole and George Plimpton interview
Note: an American humorist, author, and screenwriter. He is best known for his humorous short pieces written over many years for The New Yorker. --Wikipedia
The Most of S.J. Perelman (1958)
Comment: Just as the Sherlock Holmes stories evoke a gaslit London of fog and hansom cabs, so Perelman's humor, laced as it is with allusions to contemporary magazines, old slang, and forgotten film stars and restaurants, carries the reader right back to the innocent, flamboyant side of the 1930s. --Michael Dirda
Contributor Etext: The New Yorker

Alejo CARPENTIER (1904-1980)
One star: The Lost Steps (1953)
The Kingdom of This World (1957; El Reino de este Mundo 1949)
Explosion in a Cathedral (El siglo de las luces 1962)
Reasons of State (El Recurso del metodo 1974)

Isaac Bashevis SINGER (1904-1980) Reference: Criticism: post
Note: a Polish-born Jewish-American author. ... He was a leading figure in the Yiddish literary movement and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978. --Wikipedia
Comment: As someone in the business, I have more than once been asked who writing over the past fifty or so years is likely to be read a hundred years from now. The only name I can feel any confidence in putting forward is that of Isaac Bashevis Singer. --Joseph Epstein
Satan in Goray (1935)
One star: The Family Moskat (1950)
Comment: deals, with Tolstoyan range and certainty, with a ghetto family and its slow disintegration and advance into (1939) modernity... . --Raphael and McLeish
Gimpel the Fool & Other Stories (1957)
Comment: Marvellous, timeless blend of medieval and modern imagination: the human condition defined and described by a master story-teller, delighted by the teeming detail which makes up a moment. --Raphael and McLeish
The Magician of Lublin (1960)
The Magician of Lublin and The Slave are less 'modern' in tone [than The Family Moskat], but are both specific in their Eastern European setting and 'mythic' in timeless morality. --Raphael and McLeish
In My Father's Court (1966)
Comment: A memoir of the author's childhood days in the home where his father, as rabbi, heard disputes and struggled for resolutions amid the daily lives of his community in Warsaw. The disputes become windows into the virtues and vices of individuals, the traumas solved by arbitrary rules, and the traumas created by them. --Martha Minow
The Manor (1967)
The Estate (1969)
A Crown of Feathers, and Other Stories (1974)
Collected Stories (1982)
Comment: He tells us that it is natural to be good, and unholy to go astray. It is the inhuman, the antihuman, forces that are to blame for harms and sorrows. --Cynthia Ozick

Christopher ISHERWOOD (1904-1986)
One star: The Berlin Stories (1954)
Comment: Herr Issyvoo in his best 'I am a camera' phase; decay of a civilization (Germany under the Nazis) in the form of seemingly casual sketches of Berlin life. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: The real human background of 'The Berlin Stories' is always Isherwood's own alienation from the England of the '20s and '30s, that slumbering pit in which Baldwin's pigs grunted in self-satisfaction and over which Chamberlain's umbrella rose like a forlorn tear. --Alfred Kazin
Christopher and His Kind (1977)

Salvador DALI (1904-1989) Criticism: post
The Secret Life of Salvador Dali (3rd Ed., 1970)

B. F. SKINNER (1904-1990) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. --Wikipedia
Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971)
Comment: Swallowing whole the superstitions of modern scientism, this psychologist was convinced that the human psyche was nothing but a superstition. --The Intercollegiate Review

Roy FULLER (1904-1991)
Collected Poems: 1936-1961 (1962)
New and Collected Poems: 1934-1984 (1985)

Graham GREENE (1904-1991) Criticism: post
Brighton Rock (1938)
The Power and the Glory (1940)
a schematic masterpiece of a whisky priest in Mexico. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Heart of the Matter (1948)

Clifton FADIMAN (1904-1999)
Note: an American intellectual, author, editor, radio and television personality. --Wikipedia
The Lifetime Reading Plan (1st edition 1960)
Comment: It was long fashionable to deride Fadiman as the quintessential middle-brow. But for me, and I suspect for many other people past forty, The Lifetime Reading Plan opened up the world of great literature. --Michael Dirda
Comment: As much a I admire his book, it's hard for me to imagine following Fadiman's plan from beginning to end. ... Nevertheless, I treasure his Lifetime Reading Plan on my reference shelf. --Steve Leveen
The Lifetime Reading Plan (New Revised [2nd] Edition 1978)
Comment: A hundred classics introduced in the informal and informative style that has been Fadiman's trademark as one of America's most respected bookpeople. --Steven Gilbar
The Lifetime Reading Plan (3rd edition 1988) Reference: Table of Contents
The New Lifetime Reading Plan (4th edition 1997, with John S. Major) Reference: Table of Contents

Richard EBERHART (1904-2005) Criticism: Sonia Scherr obituary
Collected Poems: 1930-1976 (1976)

Ernst MAYR (1904-2005) Criticism: Steve Bradt obituary
Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist (1942)
Comment: By defining the biological species in strong, vital language and connecting the process of species formation to genetics, Mayr opened a large part of natural history to a more scientific form of analysis. --Edward O. Wilson
The Growth of Biological Thought (1982)
Comment: Mayr notes that biology, unlike physics, deals more often with qualitative categories, rather than coninua. Thus, biology is a unique science that is not easily reduced to physical concepts. --Jerome Kagan

Raymond RADIGUET (1903-1923)
Count d'Orgel's Ball (1924)

Nathanael WEST (1903-1940) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American author, screenwriter and satirist. --Wikipedia
Miss Lonelyhearts (1933)
Comment: lampoons the bogus sympathy of newspapers for readers' agonies... . --Raphael and McLeish
A Cool Million (1934)
The Day of the Locust (1939)
Comment: depicts Hollywood as a sumptuous hell. --Raphael and McLeish

George ORWELL (1903-1950) Reference: The Orwell Prize | Rob Pengelly fan site | O. Dag fan site Criticism: post
Note: Eric Arthur Blair ... known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic. --Wikipedia
Comment: Impossible to think of contemporary England producing a figure anything like George Orwell, whose authority came from his moral earnestness, and not from the pose of superior with-it-try. --Joseph Epstein
Burmese Days (1934) ...considered by many to be the most devastating fictional account we have of the evils of colonialism.
--John S. Major, The New Lifetime Reading Plan (1997), p. 278
Two stars: Animal Farm (1945) Study: Literature Network
Comment: denounced by pro-Soviets in 1944, rejected by publisher Gollancz, is a Swiftian fable of the Russian Revolution and its perversions. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: The animals on a farm revolt and take over a farm; they will now run it for their own good and according to their own lights, not those of the farmer. ... Subtle changes occur, and heartless cruelties masked by sententious rhetoric from the pigs ... --Charles Van Doren
Comment: He is questioning the whole notion of the ordered state, perhaps questioning the value of any revolution that sets the ordered state as its goal. --Clifton Fadiman
Two stars: Nineteen Eighty-four (1949) Study: Literature Network
Comment: ...democracy and freedom could disappear from the world, to be replaced by a subtly all-pervasive tyranny in which Big Brother watches everyone all the time ... --Charles Van Doren
Comment: To Huxley's vision of a dehumanized future Orwell adds new dimensions of terror and torture; and of course terror and torture are now prominent features of our world's political landscape. --Clifton Fadiman
Comment: a vision of a totalitarian hell, created in this century by people who spoke publicly of their commitment to the improvement of human life. --D. Quinn Mills
Homage to Catalonia (1952)
Comment: The savagely incisive song of a great writer's disillusionment with the bloody inhumanity of the Left. --The Intercollegiate Review
One star: Collected Essays (1968-1970) Etext: University of Adelaide Reference: Wikipedia
Comment: Orwell has always been more valued by people in the know for his essays than for his immensely popular Cold War books, but the question is, will there be a big enough contingent of people in the know to continue to value him at his best. --Joseph Epstein
Comment: Every conservative's favorite liberal and every liberal's favorite conservative. This book has no enemies. --Florence King

Sadegh HEDAYAT (1903-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Farzin Yazdanfar fan site
Note: ... Iran's foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. --Wikipedia
The Blind Owl (Boof-e koor, 1937)
Comment: naturalized existentialism into Iran. --Philip Ward

John VON NEUMANN (1903-1957) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Sean Robsville essay
Note: a Hungarian-American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. --Wikipedia
Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, 1932)
The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (1944, with Oskar Morgenstern)
Note: Oskar Morgenstern (January 24, 1902 – July 26, 1977) was a German-born economist. --Wikipedia
Comment: The first really profound mathematical treatise written about a subject at the crossroads of economics, sociology and psychology. --Howard Raiffa

Frank O'CONNOR (1903-1966) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Irish writer of over 150 works, best known for his short stories and memoirs. --Wikipedia
The Collected Stories (1981)
Comment: While most modern stories focus on a single moment, Frank O'Connor's generally sum up the patterns of whole lives --Anne Tyler

Evelyn WAUGH (1903-1966) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an English writer of novels, biographies and travel books. He was also a prolific journalist and reviewer. --Wikipedia
Vile Bodies (1930)
Comment: Wodehouse's irrepressibly cheerful Noel Coward fox-trot had turned into Havel's 'La Valse' under Waugh's manic baton. --William Alfred
A Handful of Dust (1934)
Waugh's pre-war novels are ruthless romps... . --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Scoop (1938)
Put Out More Flags (1942)
Brideshead Revisited (1945)
Comment: What he is saying in effect is that faith is a saving answer to anyone who has it or has had it, which could scarcely be called propaganda, though he will surely be charged with propaganda. --John K. Hutchens
The Loved One (1948)
Sword of Honor: Men at Arms (1952); Officers and Gentlemen (1955); Unconditional Surrender (1961)

Jean FOLLAIN (1903-1977)
Transparencies of the World: Poems (1969)

Marguerite YOURCENAR (1903-1987) Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
Coup de Grace (Le coup de grace 1939)
Memoirs of Hadrian (Memoires d'Hadrien 1951)
Comment: the narrative, at once intimate and austere, reconstitutes with its burnished images the empire of second-century Rome. --Sven Birkerts

Alan PATON (1903-1988) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a South African author and anti-apartheid activist. --Wikipedia
Cry, the Beloved Country (1948)

Steven RUNCIMAN (1903-2000)
A History of the Crusades (3 vol. 1951-1954)
Comment: One of the best, most thrilling historical books of the 20th century, engrossing for specialists, accessible for all. --Raphael and McLeish

Witold GOMBROWICZ (1904-1969)
Ferdydurke (1937)
Cosmos (Kosmos 1965)
Pornografia (1966)

Robert B. DOWNS (1903-1991) Criticism: New York Times obituary
Famous Books Since 1492 or Molders of the Modern Mind (1961)
Famous Books, Ancient and Medieval (1964)

Luis CERNUDA (1902-1963)
Note: a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of '27. During the Spanish Civil War, in early 1938, he went to the UK to deliver some lectures and this became the start of an exile that lasted till the end of his life. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1977)

Nazim HIKMET (1902-1963)
Secilmis Siirler (1954) ["Selected Poems"]

Langston HUGHES (1902-1967) Criticism: Gary Younge essay
The Negro Speaks of Rivers (1921)
The Big Sea (1940)
"Harlem" in Montage of a Dream Deferred (1951)
I Wonder as I Wander (1958)
One star: Selected Poems (1995)

John STEINBECK (1902-1968) Criticism: Anne Haas essay | Christopher Flannery review
Of Mice and Men (1937)
Two stars: The Grapes of Wrath (1939) Criticism: Keith Windschuttle review
Comment: It is a very long novel, the longest Steinbeck has written, and yet it reads as if it had been composed in a flash, ripped off the typewriter and delivered to the public as an ultimatum. --Peter Monro Jack
Travels with Charley: In Search of America (1962)

Stevie SMITH (1902-1971)
Note: an English poet and novelist. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1975)

Georgette HEYER (1902-1974) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Sally Houghton fan site
Note: a British historical romance and detective fiction novelist. --Wikipedia
Friday's Child (1944)
The Grand Sophy (1950)
Comment: the Grand Sophy will need to exert all her powers to properly mix and match up more than a half-dozen assorted lovers. Is there any doubt she can do it? --Michael Dirda
Cotillion (1953)
Venetia (1958) a young woman resigned to spinsterhood encounters a notorious rake, and both gradually work their way toward a mutual redemption. --Michael Dirda
A Civil Contract (1961)
Comment: the plain but rich Jenny agrees to marry the man she loves (who needs her money), even though he is still infatuated with the beautiful Julia. But marriage, Jenny recognizes, isn't so much a matter of infatuation as of comfort and companionship. --Michael Dirda

Gyula ILLYES (1902-1983) Study: eNotes Reference: Internet Movie Data Base
A Tribute to Byula Illyes (1968)
A Sentence About Tyranny (translated by George Szirtes; Egy mondat a zsarnoksagrol) Etext: Hungarian Quarterly (Autumn 1995)

Christina STEAD (1902-1983) Criticism: Brooke Allen review
The Man Who Loved Children (1940)

G. G. SIMPSON (George Gaylord Simpson 1902-1984) Reference: Lefalophodon
Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944)

Fernand BRAUDEL (1902-1985) Criticism: Olivia Harris essay
Note: a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. --Wikipedia
One star: The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (La Mediterranee et le Monde Mediterraneen a l'epoque de Philippe II, 1949)
Comment: defines a region ecologically (from the southern limits of the date palm to the northern limits of the olive tree) and culturally (from the Arab east and south to the Catholic north and west), demonstrating in intricate detail the complex and fragile interaction of physical environment and human effort in one moment of time past. --John R. Stilgoe
Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Centuries (1979, Civilisation materielle, economie et capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe siecle, 1979)
Comment: ...Braudel uses paintings, literature and other surprising sources in a remarkable evocation of day-to-day life in the formative period of modern society. --Jeffrey Sachs
On History (1980, Ecrits sur l'Histoire 1969)

Carlos DRUMMOND de Andrade (1902-1987)
Traveling in the Family (1986)

Nicolas GUILLEN (Nicolas Cristobal Guillen Batista 1902-1987)
Man-Making Words: Selected Poems (1972)

Kay BOYLE (1902-1992) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American writer, educator, and political activist. --Wikipedia
Three Short Novels (The Crazy Hunter; The Bridegroom's Body; Decision; 1958)

Karl POPPER (1902-1994) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: post
Note: an Austrian-British philosopher and professor at the London School of Economics. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century. --Wikipedia
The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959; Logik der Forschung 1935)
The translation contained new material, including numerous footnote references to work that had appeared in the intervening years, and though these were carefully asterisked, it still required no small amount of labor to separate out the old from the new. --Bruce Caldwell
The Open Society and its Enemies (1950)
Comment: The best work on political philosophy in the 20th century. Exposes totalitarianism's roots in Plato, Hegel, and Marx. --Arthur Herman
Science as Falsification (from Conjectures and Refutations, 1963) Etext: The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive

Eugen WIGNER (1902-1995) Criticism: Biographical Memoir
Group Theory and Its Application to the Quantum Mechanics of Atomic Spectra (Gruppentheorie und ihre Andendung auf die Quantenmechanik der Atomspektren 1931)

Rafael ALBERTI (1902-2000)
The Owl's Insomnia: Poems (1982)

Mortimer J. ADLER (1902-2001) Study: Robert C. Koons lecture Reference: Center for the Study of The Great Ideas | The Mortimer J. Adler Archive | David Levine caricature | Time cover Criticism: Lloyd Luckman interview part 1 and Lloyd Luckman interview part 2 | post
Note: an American philosopher, educator, and popular author. As a philosopher he worked within the Aristotelian and Thomistic traditions. --Wikipedia
Comment: The main controversial issue, the English-speaking philosophical environment being what it is, is Adler's insistence that philosophy cannot be simply a second-order, critical or analytic activity... . It must be a first-order discipline with a subject matter of its own. --Anthony Quinton
Syntopicon to Great Books of the Western World (1952; 2nd ed. 1990)
Comment: an index to important statements, 163,000 in number, on 102 of the greatest ideas of Western Man, culled from the Bible & the works of 74 of our most significant authors & philosophers & collected in the Britannica's Great Books of the Western World. --Donald Stewart and Brendan Gill
Comment: would in not be possible, asked Adler, to read all these books and identify their individual discussions of shared notions or ideas? The result would be a kind of index of thought, a map of the great ideas that Western men and women have been thinking and arguing about for three millenia. --Charles Van Doren
See collaboration with Jacques Maritain
How to Read a Book: The art of getting a liberal education (1940)
How to Read a Book (Revised and Updated Edition 1972, with Charles Van Doren) Bookseller: Video Reference: Appendix A: A recommended reading list
Comment: it remedies, as well as it can, a defect in the earlier version, an inability to suggest rules for reading imaginative literature comparable to those given for philosopy and the sciences. --Clifton Fadiman
The Conditions of Philosophy (1965)
Comment: holds ... that most 'modern'philosophy (i.e. post-Cartesian) is of little worth. ... it redresses the bias toward relentless modernity in other authors and critics. --Raphael and McLeish
Great Treasury of Western Thought (1977 editor, with Charles Van Doren) Reference: Contents
Comment: Massive collection of classic quotations from leading authors and thinkers of the Western tradition. --Raphael and McLeish
Reforming Education: The Opening of the American Mind (1988)

A. D. HOPE (1902-2000)
Collected Poems: 1930-1970 (1972)

Whittaker CHAMBERS (1901-1961) Criticism: Robert G. Whalen article
Note: an American writer and editor. After being a Communist Party USA member and Soviet spy, he later renounced communism and became an outspoken opponent later testifying in the perjury and espionage trial of Alger Hiss. --Wikipedia
Witness (1952)
Big Sister Is Watching You Etext: National Review (December 28, 1957)

Salvatore QUASIMODO (1901-1968) Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
Selected Writings (1960)

Nemeth LASZLO (1901-1975)
Guilt (1966)

Werner HEISENBERG (1901-1976) Criticism: post
Comment: The Uncertainty Principle, the bedrock of quantum theory, implies that even if one had all the information there is to be had about a physical system, its future behavior cannot be predicted exactly, only probabilistically. --Stephen M. Barr
Comment: Is the world strictly determinant at the micro level as well as at the macro level? Heisenberg is saying no. --James Hall
The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (1930)
Comment: highly valued in its own time as a presentation of the current state of quantum theory by one of the great architects of its latest, most successful version. --Gerald Holton and Katherine Sopka
Philosophical Problems of Nuclear Science (1952)
Physics and Philosophy (1962)
Physics and Beyond (1971)
Comment: Thoughtful, penetrating, revealing of the man, also important for its insights into the history of physics in the 20th century. --Raphael and McLeish

Andre MALRAUX (1901-1976) Criticism: John Sturrock review
Note: a French novelist, art theorist and Minister for Cultural Affairs. --Wikipedia
The Conquerors (1928; Les Conquerants, 1928)
The Royal Way or The Way of the Kings (1930; La Voie royale, 1930)
One star: Man's Fate (1934; La Condition humaine, 1933)
Like all writers, he gilded the occasion; but the collapse of the Chinese Empire, the triumph of the Kuomintang and the savage repression of Communist allies in Shanghai in 1927 are all marvelously realized, sentimental callousness notwithstanding. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: Man's Hope (1938; L'Espoir, 1937)
Comment: about airplane pilots during the Spanish Civil War... . --Michael Dirda
One star: The Voices of Silence (1953; Les Voix du silence, 1951)
Comment: approaches sculpture and painting from a comparative point of view, in the widest and best sense of that sometimes controversial word. --Michael Dirda

Margaret MEAD (1901-1978) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Centennial
Note: an American cultural anthropologist... a popularizer of the insights of anthropology into modern American and Western culture --Wikipedia
Coming of Age in Samoa (1928)
Comment: We wanted Mead's findings to be correct. We believed that a more permissive sexual code would be of benefit to us all. More important, her findings were a coup for the proponents of the importance of culture vis-a-vis biology. --Martin Orans
Comment: The not-so-hidden agenda of Coming of Age in Samoa is less sexual liberation per se than a broader ideal that Mead calls 'education for choice.' --Christopher Shannon
Comment: So amusing did the natives find the white woman's prurient questions that they told her the wildest tales-and she believed them! --The Intercollegiate Review
Applied Anthropology: The State of the Art (1977; in Perspectives on anthropology, 1976, edited by A. F. C. Wallace)

Jaroslav SEIFERT (1901-1986) Reference: Nobel Prize
The Plague Column (1979)
An Umbrella from Piccadilly (1981)
Selected Poetry (1986)

Francis PONGE (1901-1989) Criticism: Francois Almaleh essay
Things: Selected Writings (1986; Things 1971)

C. L. R. JAMES (1901-1989) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The C.L.R. James Institute
Note: sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist, socialist theorist and essayist. --Wikipedia
The Black Jacobins (1938)
The Future in the Present (Selected Writings, vol. 1, 1977)

Michel LEIRIS (1901-1990) Reference: Kicking Giants biography
Manhood: A Journey from Childhood into the Fierce Order of Virility (1992)
African Art (1966, with Jacqueline DELANGE 1923-1991) Reference: National Gallery of Canada biography

Linus PAULING (1901-1994) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Linus Pauling Institute Criticism: post
Note: an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology. --Wikipedia
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics: with Application to Chemistry (1935, with Edgar Bright Wilson, 1908-1992)
Note: Wilson was a prominent and accomplished chemist and teacher --Wikipedia
The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals: An Introduction to Modern Structural Chemistry (1939)
Modern Structural Chemistry Etext: Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1954)
Science and Peace Etext: Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1963)

Carl BARKS (1901-2000) Reference: Fan Club Humor: The Ultimate Barks Collector
Note: an American cartoonist, best known for his comics about Donald Duck and as the creator of Scrooge McDuck. --Wikipedia
Duck Stories (1942-1990) Reference: Beru's Disney Comics Fan Page Criticism: Duck Comics Revue weblog

Comment: The theme of twentieth-century philosophy was human limits, with the limits posed by language as the biggest of all. --Boris Maizel

Comment: W. H. Auden remarked that one could not expect to be a major poet if one were born after the 1890s (he was himself born in 1907), and he may have been right. --Joseph Epstein

/\ Early 20th Century

\/ 1876-1900 | 1926 on /\

Revised November 21, 2017.