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Read Me What to read, 1876-1900

\/ 1851-1875 | 1901-1925 /\

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\/ Late 19th Century

Antoine de SAINT-EXUPERY (1900-1944)
The Little Prince (1943) Criticism: Benjamin Ivry essay
Comment: Written for children 'because adults don't understand anything', this story of a downed aviator and his friend, a prince from a far-off star, has surface beauty, emotional profundity. --Raphael and McLeish

Wolfgang PAULI (1900-1958) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. ... In 1945, after having been nominated by Albert Einstein, Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics ... . The discovery involved spin theory, which is the basis of a theory of the structure of matter. --Wikipedia
Theory of Relativity (Relativitatstheorie, 1921)
The General Principles of Wave Mechanics (Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der Wellenmechanik, 1933)

George SEFERIS (1900-1971) Etext: Poem Hunter Etext: Reference: Poetry International Web
Collected Poems (1981)

Theodosius DOBZHANSKY (1900-1975) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a prominent geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the unifying modern evolutionary synthesis. --Wikipedia
One star: Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937)

Jacques PREVERT (1900-1977)
Paroles (1946)

Basil BUNTING (1900-1985) Etext: Poem Hunter | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Don Share essay
Collected Poems (1985)

Gilberto FREYRE (1900-1987)
Note: a Brazilian sociologist, anthropologist, historian, writer, painter, journalist and congressman ... The trilogy is generally considered a classic of modern cultural anthropology and social history, although it is not without its critics. --Wikipedia
The Masters and the Slaves (Casa-Grande & Senzala, 1933)
The Mansions and the Shanties: the making of modern Brazil (Sobrados e Mucambos, 1936)
Order and Progress: Brazil from monarchy to republic (1959)

V. S. PRITCHETT (1900-1997) Criticism: Benjamin Schwarz review | Joseph Epstein review

Nathalie SARRAUTE (1900-1999) Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
The Planetarium (1959)
The Use of Speech (L’Usage de la parole 1980)

Hart CRANE (1899-1932) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Colm Toibin review | Eric Ormsby review essay
Note: an American poet. Finding both inspiration and provocation in the poetry of T. S. Eliot, Crane wrote modernist poetry that was difficult, highly stylized, and ambitious in its scope. --Wikipedia
Complete Poems and Selected Letters and Prose (1966)
Note: or, Hart Crane: Complete Poems and Selected Letters (2006), edited by Langdon Hammer --ed.

Benjamin PERET (1899-1959) Etext: two poems
From the Hidden Storehouse: Selected Poems (1981)

Ernest HEMINGWAY (1899-1961) Etext: The Online Books Page | Open Library Criticism: Andrew O'Hagan review | post
Note: an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction --Wikipedia
Comment: {H]e showed for all time--contrary to the Romantic notion of creativity--that economic comfort and good health are conducive to writing --Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Two stars: The Sun Also Rises (1926)
Comment: Inspired by The Sun Also Rises, hundreds of young Americans appeared in Paris lugging typewriters and dreams. --Robert Messenger
One star: A Farewell to Arms (1929)
Comment: the most integrated of his longer works, stained with lost love and the blood of Caporetto... . --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: Only those who have not realized that Hemingway's cruelty is of the surface could be surprised he made childbirth the tragic climax of this novel and his tragic ending the loss of both child and mother. --Edwin Berry Burgum
One star: The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway (1938)
Comment: That consciousness of technique is unquestionably the reason Hemingway won't achieve glory with his novels, but will with his more disciplined short stories. --Gabriel Garcia Marquez
For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) Criticism: Edmund Wilson review
Comment: One trouble is it isn't a novel at all but rather a series of short stories, some of them excellent ... imbedded in a mixture of sentimental love scenes, too much talk, rambling narrative sequences, and the rather dull interior monologues by Jordan. --Dwight Macdonald
Comment: It is a fine title, and an apt one, for this is a book filled with the imminence of death, and the manner of man's meeting it. That is as it should be; this is a story of the Spanish war. But in it Hemingway has struck universal chords, and he has struck them vibrantly. --J. Donald Adams
One star: The Old Man and the Sea (1952)
Comment: More even than the familiar bullfights and game hunting, this story reduces the contest to its very elements: a man, fish, and the sea. --Arnold Weinstein
The Garden of Eden (1986)

Leo STRAUSS (1899-1973) Criticism: Steven Lenzer and William Kristol essay
Note: a German–American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy. --Wikipedia
On Tyranny (1948)
Persecution and the Art of Writing (1952)
Comment: Strauss's argument is not that the medieval writers he studies reserved one exoteric meaning for the many (hoi polloi) and an esoteric/hidden one for the few (hoi aristoi), but that said writers succeeded in conveying meaning proper at the heart of their writings—a heart or message irreducible to "the letter" or historical dimension of texts. --Wikipedia

Friedrich HAYEK (1899-1992) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an Austrian, later British, economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism. In 1974, Hayek shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences --Wikipedia
Comment: For Hayek, ... the economist's problem is to explain how this wildly dispersed knowledge can produce a coordinated scheme of activity, which, if it 'were to be brought about deliberately, would require a knowledge on the part of the directing mind which no single person can possess.' Here, in a nutshell, is the Austrian case against central planning. --Greg Hill
The Road to Serfdom (1944) Reference: Publication History Criticism: George Orwell review
Comment: Shatters the myth that the totalitarianisms 'of the Left' and 'of the Right' stem from differing impulses. --Mark Helprin
also (Fall 2010)
The Constitution of Liberty (1960)
Comment: Thoughtful reflections on the conditions and limitations of liberty in the modern world, written by a deeply cultured Austrian who found his home in the Anglo-Saxon world. The 'Summa' of classical political economy in our century. --The Intercollegiate Review
Comment: A great re-statement for this century of classical liberalism by its greatest modern exponent. --John O'Sullivan
Economics and Knowledge Etext: Economica (1937)

LAO She (1899-1966) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a notable Chinese writer. A novelist and dramatist --Wikipedia
Rickshaw Boy (Lo-t'o Hsiang Tzu, 1937)
Comment: The reader feels tremendous sympathy for Xiangzi, even as the book comes to its inevitable conclusion. ...This is an impressive novel of an individual struggling against and defeated by a corrupt society. --Amy Ford

Yury OLESHA (1899-1966)
Envy (1927)

KAWABATA Yasunari (1899-1972)
The Snow Country (Yukiguni 1947)
The Thousand Cranes (Senbazuru 1949-51)
Beauty and Sadness (Utsukushisa to Kanashimi to 1964)

Elizabeth BOWEN (1899-1973) Criticism: Richard Tillinghast essay
Collected Stories (1980)

Miguel Angel ASTURIAS (1899-1974) Reference: Nobel Prize
Men of Maize (Hombres de maiz 1949)

Gerald Basil EDWARDS (1899-1976)
Note: a British author. ... In the late 1920s and '30s Edwards had been regarded as a writer and intellectual of great promise --Wikipedia
The Book of Ebenezer Le Page (1981)
Comment: A true epic, as sexy as it is hilarious, it seems drenched with the harsh tidal beauties of its setting...For every person nearing retirement, every latent writer who hopes to leave his island and find the literary mainland, its author–quiet, self-sufficient, tidy Homeric–remains a patron saint. --Allan Gurganus

Vladimir NABOKOV (1899-1977) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Times Topics Criticism: post
Note: a Russian-born novelist.... rose to international prominence as a writer of English prose. --Wikipedia
Comment: An uprooted victim of violent revolution, a scientist and scholar, he wandered across two continents and wrote, in two languages, subtly sophisticated, exquisitely stylish, and teasingly elusive books. --Jeffrey Meyers
One star: Lolita (1959)
Comment: A beautiful novel-of-authenticity, fusing romantic and empirical sensibilities... --Ricard D. Parker
One star: Pale Fire (1962)
Comment: The imagery is superb; it is like dreaming in Color-Vision. The story is ridiculous, poignant, and enchanting, but it opens up a world of the imagination that becomes more real than the real world. --Gordon R. Willey
Speak, Memory (1967)
Comment: Russian novelist writes of his childhood in a wealthy, pre-Revolutionary family--a never forgotten dream of happiness irretrievably snatched away. --Raphael and McLeish
Ada or Ardor: a Family Chronicle (1969)
The Art of Translation Etext: The New Republic (August 4, 1941)
The University Poem Etext: London Review of Books (June 7, 2012)

Allen TATE (1899-1979) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: David Yezzi review | Scott Morris review | Erica Da Costa review
Note: an American poet, essayist, social commentator, and Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress from 1943 to 1944. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1970)

John H. VAN VLECK (1899-1980) Reference: Nobel Prize
The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities (1932)

Henri MICHAUX (1899-1984)
Selected Writings (1990)

E. B. WHITE (1899-1985) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American writer. ... Best recognized for his essays and unsigned "Notes and Comment" pieces, he gradually became the most important contributor to The New Yorker at a time when it was arguably the most important American literary magazine. --Wikipedia
Charlotte's Web (1952)
Comment: What the book is about is friendship on earth, affection and protection, adventure and miracle, life and death, trust and treachery, pleasure and pain, and the passing of time. --Eudora Welty
The Elements of Style (1959, with William Strunk, Jr., 1869–1946) Criticism: Jennifer Balderama review
Comment: If only every writer would remember just one of Strunk & White's wonderful injunctions: 'Omit needless words.' Omit needless words. --Abigail Thernstrom
Essays of E. B. White (1978)
Comment: His mesmerized devotion to the objects of his affection-his family, the female sex, his farm, the English language, Manhattan, the sea, America, Maine, and freedom, in descending order-is movingly absolute. --David Gelernter
See collaboration with James Thurber

Jorge Luis BORGES (1899-1986) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator who was born in Buenos Aires. His work embraces the "character of unreality in all literature". --Wikipedia
Comment: HIs central preoccupations are the problems of time, identity, paradox, and the cyclical nature of knowledge and history. --Philip Ward
One star: Fictions (Ficciones, 1944)
Comment: Terse, teasing, sometimes intriguing jeux d'esprit by a writer whose favourite joke is the reader. --Raphael and McLeish
"The Garden of Forking Paths" takes the labyrinth as a metaphor for the mission of a Chinese spy, his mysterious relationship with a venerated ancestor, and fi nally fate itself. --Arnold Weinstein
One star: The Aleph and Other Stories (El Aleph, 1949)
Comment: “Emma Zunz” places a woman on a path of vengeance that requires her to annihilate a part of herself. --Arnold Weinstein
One star: Dreamtigers (1960)
One star: A Personal Anthology (Antologia personal, 1961)
Two stars: Labyrinths (1962)
Three late poems Etext: The New Criterion (March 1999)

Leonie ADAMS (1899-1988) Etext: Academy of American Poets | Kiran Krishna fan site
Note: an American poet. ... there was an initial shy wonder at the world that eventually became an intense and almost devotional lyricism. Her rich descriptions demonstrate great delicacy of perception and an exalted spirit. --Wikipedia
Poems: A Selection (1954)

Federico Garcia LORCA (1898-1936)
Note: a Spanish poet, dramatist and theatre director. García Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of '27. --Wikipedia
Comment: You, on the foundation of the ancient Spanish form of the romance, along with Juan Ramon and Machado, created another style, strange and strong, at once both a support and a crown for the old Castilian tradition. --Rafael Alberti
Comment: And in Madrid he acquired the habit, ingrained in the city's cafe intellectuals, of talking knowledgeably about books he hadn't read. --David Gilmour
One star: Gypsy Ballads (Romancero Gitano 1928)
One star: Blood Wedding (Bodas de sangre 1933)
One star: Yerma (1934)
One star: Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias (Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias 1935)
One star: The House of Bernarda Alma (La casa de Bernarnda Alma 1936)
Comment: This play was a parabolic comment on 1930s Spain--the tyranny of the central female character paralleling that of Franco. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Selected Poems (1941)

Bertolt BRECHT (1898-1956) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a German poet, playwright, theatre director, and Marxist. --Wikipedia
Comment: an epic satirist never far from the morality play, though his great gifts as a poet are constantly breaking through his Marxist ideological straitjacket. --Philip Ward
The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper, 1928)
One star: The Good Woman of Szechuan (Der gute Mensch von Sezuan, 1936)
Galileo (Leben des Galilei, 1943)
One star: Mother Courage and Her Children (Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder, 1941)
Comment: The cyclic futility of war parades before us, spiked with marvellous moments ... that make nonsense of theatrical ideology. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Caucasian Chalk Circle (Der kaukasische Kreidekreis, 1949)
Poems (2000)

Suryakant Tripathi NIRALA (1898-1961)
A Season on the Earth: Selected Poems, (David Rubin, translation 1977)
Comment: Nirala's poetry in Hindi can be divided into two phases: the Romantic phase corresponding to the literary style called Chayavad, influence by English Romanticism and devoted to aspects of Nature; and the later Pragativad style, roughly analogous to Soviet socialist realism fo the period from around 1933. --Philip Ward

C. S. LEWIS (1898-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Touchstone | Douglas Gresham fan site | Dave Armstrong fan site Criticism: post
Note: a novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, and Christian apologist. --Wikipedia
Out of the Silent Planet (1938); Perelandra (1943); That Hideous Strength (1943)
Comment: One of Lewis's attempts to charge SF ideas with Christian principles. --Raphael and McLeish
The Abolition of Man (1947)
Comment: Preferable to Lewis's other remarkable books simply because of the title, which reveals the true intent of liberalism. --The Intercollegiate Review
Comment: How modern philosophies drain meaning and the sacred from our lives. --Richard Brookhiser
Mere Christianity (1952)
Note: adapted from a series of BBC radio talks made between 1942 and 1944 --Wikipedia
Comment: The most influential book of the most influential Christian apologist of the century. --Richard John Neuhaus
Comment: Quite why the recycled wartime spiritual pep talks of a lapsed Belfast Anglican turned myth-cultivating Oxford don should, more than fifty years later, be a bestseller among born-again American Evangelicals is a pretty question for cultural history. --Stefan Collini
Imagination and Thought in the Middle Ages (lecture, July 17 and 18, 1956) excerpt Etext: Studies of Medieval and Renaissance Liteurature (1966)

Erich Maria REMARQUE (1898-1970)
All Quiet on the Western Front (1929)
Comment: the senselessness of trench warfare in World War I, and the accompanying degradation of the human spirit. --Nicolaas Bloembergen

Vicente ALEIXANDRE (1898-1984) Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
A Longing for the Light: Selected Poems (1979)

Melvin B. TOLSON (1898-1966)
Harlem Gallery (1965)

Will DURANT (1885-1981) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a prolific American writer, historian, and philosopher. --Wikipedia
The Story of Civilization (11 vol., 1935-1967, Vol. VII-XI with Ariel Durant, 1898-1981)
Note: Ariel Durant ... was a Russian-born American researcher and writer --Wikipedia

Paul VI (1897-1978) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Vatican
Note: head of the Catholic Church from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding Pope John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council --Wikipedia
On the Regulation of Birth (Humanae Vitae, 1968)
Comment: [Stephen] Colbert, the youngest of 11 children, acknowledged 'my parents' passionate obedience to Humanae Vitae,' the 1968 encyclical that taught artificial birth control was morally wrong. --Beth Griffin article

John B. WHEELWRIGHT (1897-1940)
Collected Poems (1983)

Georges BATAILLE (1897-1962)
Blue of Noon (Le Bleu du ciel 1957)

William FAULKNER (1897-1962) Reference: John B. Padgett fan site Criticism: post
Note: an American writer ... primarily known and acclaimed for his novels and short stories, many of which are set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County --Wikipedia
Comment: William Faulkner's writings revealed to me the complexity of the Southern tradition--of guilt, revenge and repentence. --D. Quinn Mills
Sartoris (1929)
Comment: introduces the two families that will always figure in the series: the Sartorises and the Snopeses, who represent respectively the top and the bottom of Jefferson society. --Mark Van Doren
Three stars:The Sound and the Fury (1929) Reference: University of Saskatchewan
One star: As I Lay Dying (1930)
Comment: The story is of the trip to Jefferson in a mule wagon with Addie and her coffin properly displayed. --Mark Van Doren
Sanctuary (1931)
One star: Light in August (1937)
Comment: The locale is again the 'deep South'; and the characters include the white trash of which he has drawn such relentless portraits, plain folk of a better strain, whites of a higher order, Negroes, of for the subject of his most detailed attention a poor white with a probable mixture of Negro blood. --J. Donald Adams
Absalom, Absalom! (1937)
Comment: The saga of Sutpen and his family, and Quentin Compson's attempt to come to terms with it, embody all the tensions in Southern and indeed American history--race, sex, regionalism, the individual and community, etc.--as well as basic epistemological questions. --Elizabeth McKinsey
If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem (1939)
Note: The novel was originally published under the title The Wild Palms, which is the title of one of the two interwoven stories. --Wikipedia
The Hamlet (1940)
One star: The Bear (from Go Down Moses, 1942)
One star: Pantaloon in Black (from Go Down Moses, 1942)
Comment: Faulkner has written in brief compass a veritable saga of racial blindness. --Arnold Weinstein
Banquet Speech (December 10, 1950) Etext: Nobel Prize

Cyril Norman HINSHELWOOD (1897-1967) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English physical chemist. --Wikipedia
The Kinetics of Chemical Change in Gaseous Systems (1923)
Comment He is best known to have demonstrated that the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is a chain reaction. --Michel Morange
Chemical Kinetics in the Past Few Decades Etext: Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1956)

Louise BOGAN (1897-1970)
The Blue Estuaries: Poems 1923-1968 (1968)

Tarjei VESAAS (1897-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page
One star: The Ice Palace (1963)
Comment: Two little girls, occupying quite different places in the social order, develop a bond so deep it transcends identity. When one makes a fateful, fatal visit to the eponymous Ice Palace, the other experiences an Orphic transformation, becoming a living dead girl for a time. --Arnold Weinstein
The Boat in the Evening (1971)

Thornton WILDER (1897-1975) Reference: The Thornton Wilder Society
The Bridge of San Luis Rey (1927)
One star: Our Town (1938)
Comment: ...utterly simple and basic, about birth, love, life, death, the immediately important dramatic themes. --Raphael and McLeish
The Skin of Our Teeth (1942)
The Matchmaker (1954)

George Wilson KNIGHT (1897-1985)
The Wheel of Fire (1930)
The Burning Oracle (19390

Louis ARAGON (1897-1986) Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography | Wolfgang Babilas fan site
Selected Poems

Kenneth BURKE (1897-1993) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American literary theorist who had a powerful impact on 20th century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetorical theory. As a literary theorist, Burke was best known for his analyses based on the nature of knowledge. --Wikipedia
Counter-statement (1931)
One star: A Rhetoric of Motives (1961)
Comment: Complex, ingenious 'new' critic, Marxist maverick whose capacity to see what is going on in a work of literature is enthralling and revealing; his manner is mannered, but the realization of the interplay between character and 'scene' is valuable and enthralling. --Raphael and McLeish

Ole Edvart ROLVAAG (1896-1931) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Norwegian-American novelist and professor who became well known for his writings regarding the Norwegian American immigrant experience. --Wikipedia
Giants in the Earth (1927)

F. Scott FITZGERALD (1896-1940) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigmatic writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined. --Wikipedia
This Side of Paradise (1920)
Comment: ... Fitzgerald's depiction of a whirlwind of exhilaration, alienation, eagerness for the future and a sense that it should all be more meaningful is still all too recognizable to those of us who are just a few years out of college. --David A. Bede
One star: Tender Is the Night (1924)
Comment: John Updike bounces this kind of response back into the work itself. 'As so often in Fitzgerald,' he writes, 'we have only the afterglow of a dream to see by.' --Geoff Dyer
Two stars: The Great Gatsby (1925) Criticism: William Voegeli review
Comment: Fitzgerald's lyric masterpiece tells us about the dreams, desires and heartbreaks that 'float in the wake' (to use a good Fitzgeraldian phrase) of the search for money and power. The whole narrative is also pervaded by the ever-present concern for social class and status that lay--and still lies--just below the surface of American life. --Gordon R. Willey
Babylon Revisited and Other Stories (1960)
Comment: He wrote good stories all his life--along with bad ones for magazines, to pay debts. --Raphael and McLeish

Antonin ARTAUD (1896-1948) Reference: Arnaud Hubert fan site
Selected Writings (1976)

Giuseppe Tomasi, Principe di LAMPEDUSA (1896-1957) Criticism: post
Comment: Fittingly for a chronicler of decay, Lampedusa was himself the last of his line -- the last Prince of Lampedusa, the tiny Italian island between Malta and the African coast, today better-known as a staging post for would-be illegal immigrants than as an outpost of European civilization standing sentinel over the Barbary Coast. --Derek Turner, 'Lampedusa's The Leopard,' The Salisbury Review, Summer 2005, p. 33
One star: The Leopard (1958)
Comment: Social disintegration, the failure of revolution, a sterile and unchanging South are evident on every page of the novel. --Edward Said, 'Thoughts on Late Style,' London Review of Books, August 5, 2004, p. 5

Edwin Justus MAYER (1896-1960)
Children of Darkness (1930)

Tristan TZARA (1896-1963)
Seven Dada Manifestos (1924)

Andre BRETON (1896-1966) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Stephen Schwartz essay
Note: a French writer and poet. He is known best as the founder of Surrealism. --Wikipedia
The Manifestoes of Surrealism (Les Manifestes du surrealisme 1955)
Poems (1982)
Manifesto of Surrealism (Manifeste du surrealisme, 1923) Etext: University of Alabama

John DOS PASSOS (1896-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Richard F. Hill essay
U.S.A. (1938): The 42nd Parallel (1930); Nineteen Nineteen (1932); The Big Money (1936)
Comment: came quite early in the wave of revisionism and disillusion with World War I that reached these shores well before the Depression. --Reginald Phelps

Jacob GLATSTEIN (1896-1971) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Polish-born American poet and literary critic who wrote in the Yiddish language. His name is also spelled Yankev Glatshteyn or Jacob Glatshteyn. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1972)

Eugenio MONTALE (1896-1981)
Comment: Montale's poetry, like his prose, followed no program, but hewed closely to the shifts of his inner life. Nevertheless, at various points in his career the critics were eager to link his work with this or that school, most often with 'hermeticism'--the movement that espoused the aesthetic of difficulty and veiled reference. --Sven Birkerts
Cuttlefish Bones: Poems (1925)
The Occasions: Poems (Le occasioni 1939)
Selected Essays (1978)
The Storm and Other Things (1978)
The Second Life of Art (1982)
Otherwise: Last and First Poems (1984)
Poems (1985)

Ernst JUNGER (1895-1998) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German writer and philosopher. --Wikipedia
Storm of Steel (2004; Stahlgewittern, 1920)
Comment: He doesn't analyze the justice of the conflict or wonder about its outcome. He doesn't dwell on the sudden death of noble comrades, or the seemingly pointless waste of men's lives, of the futility of a lost cause. Instead, day by day, he performs his duty as a soldier, and he tells us, with clinical honesty, what he does and what he sees.--Michael Dirda

F. R. LEAVIS (1895-1978) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Wikipedia entry Criticism: John Mullan review essay
Note: ... English literary critic who championed seriousness and moral depth in literature and criticized what he considered the amateur belletrism of his time. --Encyclopædia Britannica
The Great Tradition: George Eliot, Henry James, Joseph Conrad (1948)

Scott BUCHANAN (1895-1968) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American philosopher, educator, and foundation consultant. He is best known as the founder of the Great Books program at St. John's College, at Annapolis, Maryland. --Wikipedia
Rediscovering Natural Law (Report to the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1962)

Andrei PLATONOV (1895-1951)
The Foundation Pit (Kotlovan 1929–1930)

Paul ELUARD (1895-1952) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry in Translation | Academy of American Poets
Note: a French poet who was one of the founders of the surrealist movement. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1946)

Mikhail ZOSHCHENKO (1895-1958) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Soviet author and satirist. --Wikipedia
Nervous People and Other Satires (Hugh McLean translation, 1963)
The Crisis (1925) Etext: Colgate University (Charles Rougle translation)
Scenes From The Bath House, and Other Stories of Communist Russia (Sidney Monas translation, 1961) Etext: Internet Archive

Jean GIONO (1895-1970)
The Horseman on the Roof (Le Hussard sur le toit 1951)

Edmund WILSON (1895-1972) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: David Castronovo fan site Criticism: post
Note: an American writer, literary and social critic, and noted man of letters. --Wikipedia
To the Finland Station (1940)
Comment: The best single book on Karl Marx and Marx's place in modern history. --Arthur Herman
The Shores of Light (1956)
Patriotic Gore (1962)
Comment: A careful reader of American literature works to restore our past. --The Intercollegiate Review
Stravinsky Etext: The New Republic (April 1, 1925)
Dorothy Parker's Poems Etext: The New Republic (January 19, 1927)

David JONES (1895-1974) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation
Note: a painter and one of the first-generation British modernist poets. --Wikipedia
One star: In Parenthesis (1937)
One star: Anathemata (1955) Criticism: W. H. Auden review

Robert GRAVES (1895-1985) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English poet, scholar/translator/writer of antiquity specializing in Classical Greece and Rome, and novelist. --Wikipedia
Good-Bye to All That (1929)
Comment: Argument about which is the finest set of British memoirs of World War I stops here. Post-war pages tell of T.E. Lawrence, friends in Oxford and Bloomsbury, marriage, children--and divorce in 1929, when he went to live abroad. --Raphael and McLeish
I, Claudius (1934)
Comment: Pioneering 'autobiographies' of the stammering emperor, at once clean and scabrous. --Raphael and McLeish
King Jesus (1946)
One star: Collected Poems (1965) Criticism: Robert Richman review
Comment: Graves is a strong, spare, almost classical poet; sometimes over-brisk, always invigorating. --Raphael and McLeish
Selected Poems (2013, edited by Michael Longley) Criticism: The Economist review

LIN Yutang (1895-1976) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Chinese writer, translator, linguist and inventor. --Wikipedia
One star: The Importance of Living (1938)
Comment: One of those rare books which enchants while it enlightens, The Importance of Living is written lightly yet with extraordinary insight. --Philip Ward

Susanne K. LANGER (1895-1985)
Mind: An Essay on Human Feeling (3 vol. 1967-1982)

Joseph ROTH (1894-1939) Criticism: Anthony Heilbut review | Nadine Gordimer review | Jeffrey Eugenides review
Note: an Austrian-Jewish journalist and novelist --Wikipedia
The Radetzky March (Radetzkymarsch, 1932)
Comment: The principal characters are silent and solitary; they move under an enormous mass of empty sky. At the center of 'The Radetzky March' is, finally, not so much family or individuality as the whirring of time in the lives of men (women are almost entirely excluded). --Sven Birkerts

Isaac Emmanuelovich BABEL (1894-1941) Criticism: Gary Saul Morson review
Note: a Russian language journalist, playwright, literary translator, and short story writer. --Wikipedia
One star: Collected Stories (1957)
Comment: His stories are brief and vivid, his viewpoint that of a Jew 'with spectacles on his nose and autumn in his heart'. --Raphael and McLeish

Marina Ivanova TSVETAYEVA (1894-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page
One star: Selected Poems (1974)

Bibhutibhusan BANERJI (1894-1950)
Pather Panchali ("Song of the Road" 1929)

Dashiell HAMMETT (1894-1961) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, a screenplay writer, and political activist. --Wikipedia
The Maltese Falcon (1930)
Comment: a San Francisco murder mystery--who killed Spade's partner, Miles Archer?--fastened onto an international caper plot, the kind in which all the gang members end up turning on each other. --Michael Dirda

Louis-Ferdinand CELINE (1894-1961)
Note: pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches... He was a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician. --Wikipedia
Journey to the End of the Night (1934 John H. P. Marks translation; Voyage au bout de la nuit 1932)
Comment: opens with its semi-autobiographical hero's grim experiences during World War I, in the African jungle, and in America (where he works on the Ford assembly line in Detroit), and ends with Bardamu as a down-and-out doctor in Paris. --Michael Dirda
Death on the Installment Plan (U.S.) or Death on Credit (1938 John H. P. Marks translation; Mort a credit, 1936)
Comment: lurches from gallows humor to the realities of starvation and death. --Michael Dirda

James THURBER (1894-1961) Criticism: F. H. Buckley review | Robert Gottlieb review
Note: an American author, cartoonist and celebrated wit. Thurber was best known for his cartoons and short stories, published mainly in The New Yorker magazine --Wikipedia
Is Sex Necsssary? (1929, with E. B. White)
My Life and Hard Times (1933)
The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (The New Yorker, March 18, 1939)
Comment: In The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, Thurber's typical henpecked husband daydreams as he dances attendance on his wife, finally refusing a blindfold to face a firing squad. --Raphael and McLeish

E. E. CUMMINGS (1894-1962) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Eric Miles Williamson review
Complete Poems (1960)
Comment: Some of his sentimentality, his easy lyric sweetness I enjoy in the way one enjoys a rather commonplace composer's half-sweet, half-cloying melodies, but much if it is straight ham, straight corn. --Randall Jarrell

Aldous HUXLEY (1894-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page | Bibliomania Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography | Matthew A. fan site Criticism: post
Note: an English writer... . Best known for his novels... and a wide-ranging output of essays --Wikipedia
Antic Hay (1923)
Point Counter Point (1928)
Comment: Ostentatiously 'libellous', Point Counter Point retains interest as a portrait of 1930s galere (D. H. Lawrence et al.). Prurience and wit are lively and sustaining. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Brave New World (1932) Criticism: David Pearce essay
Comment: an early example of modern dystopianism: the future as awful warning. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: He has satirized the imminent spiritual trustification of mankind, and has made rowdy and impertinent sport of the World State whose motto shall be Community, Identity, Stability. --John Chamberlain
Collected Essays (1958)

Norbert WIENER (1894-1964) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American mathematician and philosopher. ... Wiener is considered the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback --Wikipedia
Cybernetics (1948) Criticism: William L. Lawrence review
The Machine Age (1949) Etext: excerpts, The New York Times (May 20, 2013)
The Human Use of Human Beings (1950)
Comment: Along with technical developments that made them [computers and robotics] possible, there developed a profound theory on information and control. This book is a milestone in the documentation and translation of that theory for the general reader. --S. James Adelstein

Jean TOOMER (1894-1967) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American poet and novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance. --Wikipedia
Cane (1923)
Comment: the vexed issues of race and identity inform the jazzy medley of sketches, poems and stories that make up Cane. --Michael Dirda

Mark VAN DOREN (1894-1972) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Poem Hunter | Sonnet Central
Note: an American poet, writer and a critic, apart from being a scholar and a professor of English --Wikipedia | He upheld the writing of verse in traditional forms throughout a lengthy period of experiment in poetry. --Encyclopaedia Britannica
Liberal Education (1943)
The Noble Voice, a Study of Ten Great Poems (1946)
Selected Poems (1954)

Jean RENOIR (1894-1979)
Renoir, My Father (1962)
Comment: Intimate, uninhibited picture of a great painter. From life--or studio portrait? --Raphael and McLeish

Joseph H. WOODGER (1894-1981) Reference: Brauckmann and Kull essay
Biological Principles (1929)

J. V. FOIX (1894-1987) Etext: two poems Criticism: Patricia J. Boehne essay
When I Sleep, Then I See Clearly: Selected Poems (1988)

Wilfred OWEN (1893-1918) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English poet and soldier, one of the leading poets of the First World War. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1965)

Vladimir Vladimirovich MAYAKOVSKY (1893-1930)
One star: The Bedbug and Selected Poetry (1975)

Israel Joshua SINGER (1893-1944) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Yiddish novelist. He was the brother of Nobel Prize-winning author Isaac Bashevis Singer and novelist Esther Kreitman. --Wikipedia
Yoshe Kalb (1932)
The Brothers Ashkenazi (1937) Criticism: Adam Kirsch review | Rebecca Newberger Goldstein review

Carles RIBA (1893-1959) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Catalan poet, writer and translator. --Wikipedia
Poems (1970)

Herbert READ (1893-1968) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English anarchist, poet, and critic of literature and art. He was one of the earliest English writers to take notice of existentialism --Wikipedia
One star: The Green Child (1935)
The Contrary Experience: Autobiographies (1963)

MAO Zedong (1893-1976) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Marxists Internet Archive Criticism: post
Note: a Chinese communist revolutionary, politician and socio-political theorist. The founding father of the People's Republic of China from its establishment in 1949, he governed the country as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death. --Wikipedia
Comment: ...he must be accounted the most evil man who ever lived, of whom we have detailed knowledge, without any redeeming qualities whatsoever. --Paul Johnson
Comment: Anyone not taking account of the nation's leader during the decades of the Communist era will risk a myopic view of world events. --Philip Ward
Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung (1961)
Selected Works (1977)

Jorge GUILLEN (1893-1984)
Note: a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of '27, as well as a university teacher, scholar and literary critic. --Wikipedia
Guillen on Guillen: The Poetry and the Poet (Anthony L. Geist translation, 1979)

Ryunosuke AKUTAGAWA (1892-1927) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Japanese writer active in the Taisho period in Japan. He is regarded as the "Father of the Japanese short story" --Wikipedia
Rashomon (1914)
Tobacco and the Devil (translated by Edwin McClellan as The Devil and Tobacco; Tabako to Akuma, 1916) Etext: Modern Age (Summer 1957)

Cesar VALLEJO (1892-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets
Note: a Peruvian poet, writer, playwright, and journalist. ... he is considered one of the great poetic innovators of the 20th century in any language. --Wikipedia
Spain, Take This Cup from Me (Espana, aparte de mi este calize, 1937)
One star: Selected Poems (1981)

Walter BENJAMIN (1892-1940) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Scott J. Thompson fan site
Note: a German literary critic, philosopher, social critic, translator, radio broadcaster and essayist. ... made enduring and influential contributions to aesthetic theory and Western Marxism, and is associated with the Frankfurt School. --Wikipedia
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections (1968)
Comment: What prevents Benjamin's vision of the situation from being entirely hopeless (as it is in Kafka) is the belief that the scattered pieces still possess some residual attraction for one another, that the original reality can theoretically be rediscovered. --Sven Birkerts
1940 Survey of French Literature Etext: New Left Review (May-June 2008)

Bruno SCHULZ (1892-1942)
The Street of Crocodiles (1936; Sklepy Cynamonowe "Cinnamon Shops")
Sanitorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass (1988; Sanatorium Pod Klepsydra)

Pedro SALINAS (1892-1951)
My Voice Because of You (1976; La voz a ti debida)

Konstantin PAUSTOVSKY (1892-1968)
The Story of a Life (Manya Harari and Michael Duncan translation 1964, Povest' o Zhimi 1946-64)
Comment: a magnificent autobiography which delineates life in the Soviet Union during the first half of the twentieth century (he traveled very widely) in all its endless variety. --Philip Ward

Ivy COMPTON-BURNETT (1892-1969)Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English novelist... . She was awarded the 1955 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for her novel Mother and Son. --Wikipedia
Comment: Imagine a mix of Oscar Wilde, Wilkie Collins, and Sophocles, or think of a gloomy P. G. Wodehouse. --Michael Dirda
Brothers and Sisters (1929)
Bullivant and the Lambs (U.S.) or Manservant and Maidservant (1947)
A God and his Gifts (1963)

Reinhold NIEBUHR (1892-1971) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American theologian, ethicist, public intellectual, commentator on politics and public affairs... . He attacked utopianism as ineffectual for dealing with reality --Wikipedia
Comment: ...argued that democracy cannot be defended by appealing to Enlightenment rationalism or faith in historical progress but only by a hard-headed appreciation of 'original sin.' --Daniel J. Mahoney
Comment: Niebuhr, who has come into fashion again among liberals intent on devising a third way between neoconservatives and antiwar Democrats, supported the cold war struggle against the Soviet Union but warned against wallowing in American righteousness. --Jacob Heilbrun
The Nature and Destiny of Man (1941-1943)
Comment: Niebuhr is often categorized as a 'Christian realist' about worldly affairs and as 'Neo-orthodox' in his theological view of man. The second claim comes from his insistence that contrary to Pollyannaish liberal Protestants, man is indeed sinful and unlikely to do good just because the welfare state has helped him out of poverty. Niebuhr's politics are called 'realist' because he argued, eloquently and at length, that our pious worries about geopolitics leading to injustice and complicity with evil should not impede us from making hard-nosed political desisions in a cruel world. --Daniel P. Moloney
Comment: A biting critique of secular thought and a persuasive and inspiring exposition of man's Christian destiny. --The Intercollegiate Review
Serenity Prayer (1944) Humor: Sandra Bell-Lundy comic strip | Stephan Pastis comic strip

Pearl S. BUCK (1892-1973) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American writer and novelist. As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in China. ... In 1938 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature --Wikipedia
The Good Earth (1931)
Comment: Its powerful presentation of some basic cultural differences was a valuable way to be introduced to the importance of seeing and respecting different cultures and values, of accepting cultural differences and of acknowledging the value of other perspectives. --Matina Horner

J. R. R. TOLKIEN (1892-1973) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Tolkien Society | The Catholic Imagination Criticism: post
One star: The Hobbit (1937)
Comment: Hobbits are small, home-loving creatures; Bilbo's uncharacteristic expedition with the dwarfs to find dragon treasure leads, among other things, to finding the fateful ring which, in later (adult) 'Lord of the Rings' trilogy, leads his nephew Frodo to the edge of Mordor and the destruction of its dark powers. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Lord of the Rings (1954-1956)
Comment: The hero, Frodo Baggins, belongs to a race called hobbits, who may be only three feet high, have hairy feet and prefer to live in underground houses, but in their thinking and sensibility resemble very closely those arcadian rustics who inhabit so many British detective stories. --W. H. Auden

Ivo ANDRIC (1892-1975) Reference: Nobel Prize
The Bridge on the Drina (1945)

Hugh MACDIARMID (1892-1978) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Poetry Archive
Note: a Scottish poet. He was instrumental in creating a Scottish version of modernism and was a leading light in the Scottish Renaissance of the 20th century. --Wikipedia
Complete Poems 1920-1976 (1978)

Rebecca WEST (1892-1983) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Carl Rollyson essay | Richard Tillinghast essay
Note: an English author, journalist, literary critic and travel writer. A prolific, protean author who wrote in many genres, West was committed to feminist and liberal principles and was one of the foremost public intellectuals of the twentieth century. --Wikipedia
Black Lamb and Grey Falcon (1942) Etext: The Atlantic Monthly (January-May 1941)
Comment: For its writing, not for its historical accuracy. --Michael Kelly
The Duty of Harsh Criticism Etext: The New Republic (November 7, 1914)

Louis DE BROGLIE (1892-1987) Criticism: Davis Associates essay
Comment: If waves (such as light) can act like paricles, then perhaps particles (such as electrons) can act like waves. --Stephen M. Barr, Faith and Quantum Theory, First Things, March 2007, p. 21
Investitgations on Quantum Theory (Recherches sur la theorie des quanat 1924)

J. P. MARQUAND (1892-1960) Criticism: Jonathan Yardley essay
H. M. Pulham, Esquire (1941)

Archibald MACLEISH (1892-1982) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Criticism: Benjamin DeMott interview
Note: an American poet, writer, and the Librarian of Congress. He is associated with the Modernist school of poetry. --Wikipedia
Comment: One of America's most eminent 20th-century men of letters, MacLeish was first and foremost a poet, and a fine one. --Raphael and McLeish
The Human Season, Selected Poems 1926-1972 (1972)

Osip Emilievich MANDELSTAM or MANDELSHTAM (1891-1938)
One star: Selected Poems (1967)
Comment: What we get, in English, is at best a kind of camera obscura rendering of a phenomenon that is densely textured, quick with allusion, and that derives its internal propulsion from the intransmissible word itself. --Sven Birkerts

Mikhail BULGAKOV (1891-1940)
One star: The Master and Margarita (c. 1930's)

Zora Neale HURSTON (1891-1960) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American folklorist, anthropologist, and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. --Wikipedia
One star: Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)
Comment: Janice's self-knowledge, tenacity and humor, as well as her story, make her one of the more memorable characters in American fiction. --Elizabeth McKinsey

Par LAGERKVIST (1891-1974) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Official site
Note: a Swedish author who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1951. --Wikipedia
Barabbas (1950)
Evening Land (Aftonland, 1953)
The Sibyl (Sibyllan, 1956)
Comment: picks up all these themes—being unblessed, being confused and even undone by an encounter with a god—but adds substantially to the mix by dint of its polytheistic plot and gender issues. --Arnold Weinstein

Michael POLANYI (1891-1976)
Note: a Hungarian polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy. He argues that positivism supplies a false account of knowing, which if taken seriously undermines our highest achievements as human beings. --Wikipedia
Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy (1958)

Comment: After 1890, however, the inherited cultural and social continuum disolved, thereby diminishing certainties about the purpose of human endeavor. --Oscar Handlin

Isaac ROSENBERG (1890-1918) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets Reference: First World War Poetry Digital Archive
Note: an English poet of the First World War. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1974)

H. P. LOVECRAFT (1890-1937) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Samuel Francis review essay
Note: an American author who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction. --Wikipedia
Comment: Lovecraft firmly believed that the successful weird tale should be utterly realistic except for the one shattering incursion from the Outside. Nonetheless, from the very first words his stories constantly hint that something is awry, off-kilter, not quite right. --Michael Dirda
The Colour Out of Space (1927)
The Call of Cthulhu (1928)
The Dunwich Horror (1929)
At the Mountains of Madness (1936)
The Shadow Out of Time (1936)
The Case of Charles Dexter Ward (1941)

Karel CAPEK (1890-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Patricia Hampl essay
Note: a Czech writer of the early 20th century best known for his science fiction --Wikipedia
Comment: the eternal Central European intellectual, highly literate and educxated, superficially knowledgeable, and widely read. --Helen Szamuely
R. U. R. (Rossumovi univerzalni roboti, 1920; Rossum's Universal Robots)
War with the Newts (Valka s mloky, 1936)

Boris PASTERNAK (1890-1960) Etext: Twenty-two poems Criticism: post
Selected Poems (1946)
One star: Doctor Zhivago (1957)
Comment: ...includes a panoramic view of Russian history during the first thirty years of the twentieth century, a classic love story, and philosophical and religious observations on questions of life, morals, and power which inevitably drew attention to the inadequacies of Marxism as a way of life, and to the bloody events during and after the Russian Revolution that led to the emasculation under Stalinism of intellectual and artistic activity. --Philip Ward

R. A. FISHER (1890-1962)
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930)

Agatha CHRISTIE (1890-1976) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English crime writer of novels, short stories, and plays --Wikipedia
Hercule Poirot mysteries (The Mysterious Affair at Styles, 1920-Curtain, 1975)
Comment: His general practice was simply to encourage people to talk about themselves, their activities at the time of the murder, and the victim. Some personality trait, a casual discrepancy in alibi, the smallest, least likely detail might be enough to set his orderly mind on the right track. He would then meditate on his 'little ideas' until he discovered the one pattern that would explain every anamoly. --Michael Dirda
Miss Marple mysteries (The Thirteen Problems 1927-Sleeping Murder, 1976))
Comment: an elderly spinster living in a quiet English village, whose penetrating blue eyes miss absolutely nothing. Not surprisingly, the Miss Marple novels often examine domestic of familial tragedies. --Michael Dirda

Jean RHYS (1890-1979)
Wide Sargasso Sea (1966)
Comment: More than merely filling in the gaps in Bronte’s novel [Jane Eyre], it is a challenging and evocative tale of colonialism, identity, and madness. --Arnold Weinstein

Katherine Anne PORTER (1890-1980)
Collected Stories (1965) Criticism: Eric Ormsby review

Adolf HITLER (1889-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page | Hitler Historical Museum Humor: The Daily Hitler Criticism: post
Note: an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party... . He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany... from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust. --Wikipedia
Mein Kampf (1925-27)
Comment: Nothing is lacking in that book; the blood and land, the living space, the Jew as the eternal enemy, the Germans who embody 'the highest form of humanity on earth', the other countries openly regarded as the instruments of German domination. --Primo Levi
Comment: Say what you like about the tenets of National Socialism, Dude, at least it's an ethos. --Walter Sobchak

Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN (1889-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: post
Note: an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. --Wikipedia
Comment: For Wittgenstein, as for Hegel, reality lay precisely in other people and other things, that is, outside the self whose own reality they underwrite. --Robert Grant, The Salisbury Review, Summer 2001, p. 45
Comment: Wittgenstein countered Descartes’ dualism, after all, by observing that the philosophical question he was most famous for — *how do I know that I am?* — contained the seeds of its destruction in the very phrasing: Only by *presupposing* a community of language believers, Wittgenstein argued, could this question about radical oneness make sense. --Mary Eberstadt, 'How the West Really Lost God', Policy Review, June & July 2007
One star: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung 1921) Reference: Contents
Comment: A terse summation of the analytic method of the analytic school in philosophy, and a heroic leap beyond it. --Jeffrey Hart
Philosophical Investigations (1953) Reference: Lois Shawver essay
Comment: In a century littered with ill-considered arguments about the linguistic "construction of reality," this landmark of the later Wittgenstein stands in a wholly different category. --The Intercollegiate Review
Preliminary Studies for the 'Philosophical Investigations': Generally Known as the Blue and Brown Books (1964)
Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics (Bemerkungen uber die Grundlagen der Mathematik, 1967)
Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology (Bemerkungen uber die Philosophie der Psychologie, 1980)

E. P. HUBBLE (1889-1953)
The Realm of the Nebulae (1936)

Pierre REVERDY (1889-1960) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation Criticism: Diane Mehta post | Kenneth Rexroth essay
Note: a French poet whose works were inspired by and subsequently proceeded to influence the provocative art movements of the day, Surrealism, Dadaism and Cubism. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1991)

Jean COCTEAU (1889-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: John Bentley Mays essay | William Fifield interview
Note: a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. --Wikipedia
The Holy Terrors (Les enfant terribles, 1929)
The Infernal Machine (La Machine infernale, 1934)

Anna AKHMATOVA (1889-1966) Etext: The Online Books Page | Academy of American Poets | Poetry Lovers Page
Note: Anna Andreyevna Gorenko... better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova... was a Russian modernist poet --Wikipedia
Comment: Style aims at sense rather than sound, clarity rather than vagueness--and is particularly susceptible to translation. --Raphael and McLeish
Evening (1912)
Rosary (1914)
White Flock (1915)
Comment: the poet transmuted both her serious affairs and passing fancies into lyrics of permanent beauty. --Michael Dirda
Requiem (1988)
Comment: Her book-length elegy for the 1930s... . --Michael Dirda

Christopher DAWSON (1889-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Michael Richard Lynch dissertation
Note: a British independent scholar, who wrote many books on cultural history and Christendom. --Wikipedia
Progress and Religion: An Historical Enquiry (1929)
Enquiries into Religion and Culture (1933)
Religion and the Modern State (1935)
Conservatism (June 1932) Etext: The Political Science Reviewer (Fall 2010)
The Dynamics Of World History (1956) Etext: Internet Archive
Christianity and Culture: Selections from the Writings of Christopher Dawson (2008) Etext: Internet Archive

Conrad AIKEN (1889-1973) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Archive | Academy of American Poets
Collected Poems 1916-1970 (1970)

Taha HUSAYN (1889-1973)
An Egyptian Childhood (1932)

Arnold TOYNBEE (1889-1975) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Frederick D. Wilhelmsen essay
Note: a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of International History at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books. --Wikipedia
A Study of History (1934-1961)
Comment: The proletariats are 'softened' (in Toynbee's phrase) by their imitation of the manners and morals of a dominant elite. But when a society begins to falter, the imitation proceeds largely in the opposite direction: the dominant elite is coarsened by its imitation of proletarian manners. --The New Criterion
Comment: Made the possibility of a divine role in history respectable among serious historians. --The Intercollegiate Review
Civilization on Trial (1948)
Radio Debate (1948)
An Historian's Approach to Religion (1956; Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1952-1953)
Change and Habit: The Challenge for Our Time (1966)

Martin HEIDEGGER (1889-1976) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: Leland de la Durantaye essay | Adam Kirsch review | Simon Blackburn review | Glenn W. Most essay | Robert Sokolowski review | Simon Blackburn review | Berel Lang review | William E. Hughes essay | Denis Dutton essay
Note: a German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the "question of Being". ... Heidegger is a controversial figure, largely for his affiliation with Nazism prior to 1934 --Wikipedia
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit, 1927)
Comment: A seminal thinker, notwithstanding his disgraceful error of equating National Socialism with the experience of 'Being.' --Jeffrey Hart
Only a God Can Save Us (Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten, Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff interview, September 23, 1966) Etext: (Der Spiegel, May 31, 1976)

Dietrich von HILDEBRAND (1889-1977) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Legacy Project
Note: a German Catholic philosopher and theologian... . Von Hildebrand was a vocal critic of the changes in the church brought by the Second Vatican Council. --Wikipedia
In Defense of Purity (Reinheit und Jungfraulichkeit, 1927)

Harry Elmer BARNES (1889-1968) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American historian. A "progressive who had some classical liberal impulses," Barnes was also known as a Holocaust Denier. --Wikipedia
A History of Historical Writing (2nd Ed., 1962)
Pearl Harbor After a Quarter of a Century Etext: Left and Right (1968)

Katherine MANSFIELD (Kathleen Murry 1888-1923) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Birthplace Criticism: post
The Short Stories (1945)
Comment: Mansfield's best stories, many about her childhood in New Zealand. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: And I was jealous of her stories--the only writing I have ever been jealous of. --Virginia Woolf, quoted by Patrical Hampl, 'The Relics of Saint Katherine', The American Scholar, Summer 2001, p. 139

Eugene O'NEILL (1888-1933) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: eO'Neill | Tao House | National Historic Site Reference: Criticism: Stark Young review | post
Note: an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature. His poetically titled plays were among the first to introduce into American drama techniques of realism --Wikipedia
One star: The Emperor Jones (1921)
One star: Desire Under the Elms (1924)
Lazarus Laughed (1925)
One star: Mourning Becomes Electra (1931)
Comment: ... the success of Mourning Becomes Electra's three closely linked plays had shown him what had been missing from his earlier work, or at least only weakly present--a sense of history, of time at work on America. --Thomas Flanangan, 'Master of the Misbegotten', 'New York Review of Books' October 5, 2000 p. 14
Two stars: The Iceman Cometh (1946)
Comment: The Iceman Cometh is indeed made of ice or iron; it is full of will and fanatic determination; it appears to have been written at some extreme temperature of the mind. --Mary McCarthy, quoted from 1946 'New Yorker' review, by Thomas Flanangan in 'Master of the Misbegotten', 'New York Review of Books' October 5, 2000 p. 14
Comment: In a cheap tavern, craven dreamers are startled into action by a travelling salesman--in effect a salesman of death. --Raphael and McLeish
Three stars: Long Day's Journey into Night (1956)
Comment: Essentially, 'Long Day's Journey into Night' is not so much a tale as O'Neill's remorseless attempt to tell the blunt truth about his family as a matter of artistic conscience. --Brooks Atkinson

Fernando PESSOA (1888-1935) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language. --Wikipedia
Comment: The work for which he will always be remembered was written by himself, under his own name, and under three heteronyms, each of which represented a complete autonomous poetic life and work in the Pirandellian sense of divided by whole identities. --Philip Ward
One star: Selected Poems
(Peter Rickard translation 1971)
One star: Always Astonished: Selected Prose
(Edwin Honig translation 1988)
One star: The Book of Disquiet
(Alfred Mac Adam translation 1991)
One star: The Keeper of the Sheep
(Edwin Honig and Susan M. Brown translation 1997)
One star: Poems of Fernando Pessoa
(Edwin Honig and Susan M. Brown translation 1998)

Nikolai BUKHARIN (1888-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page | Marxists Internet Archive Reference: Wikipedia entry
Note: a Russian Marxist, Bolshevik revolutionary, and Soviet politician. ... one of Stalin's most prominent victims during the "Moscow Trials" and purges of the Old Bolsheviks in the late 1930s. --Wikipedia
Comment: The lumpenproletariat--the 'underclass' as they say today--used to drive the the Russian Revolutionaries up the wall. Someone like Nikolai Bukharin would end up talking about them like he was some cracker judge from the year 1911 --Tom Wolfe
Historical Materialism - a system of Sociology (1921)

Umberto SABA (Umberto Poli 1888-1957) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Susan Stewart essay
Note: an Italian poet and novelist, born Umberto Poli in the cosmopolitan Mediterranean port of Trieste when it was the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. --Wikipedia
Poems (1911)
Stories and Recollections (1993)
Two Poems Etext: Guernica (January 1, 2009)

H. LEIVICK (1888-1962) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: pen name of Leivick Halpern, was a Yiddish language writer, known for his 1921 "dramatic poem in eight scenes" The Golem. He also wrote many highly political, realistic plays, including "Shop." --Wikipedia
The Golem (Der Goylem, 1921) Etext: Yiddish Book Center [author audio excerpts]

RAMON Gomez de la Serna (1888-1963) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Spanish writer, dramatist and avant-garde agitator. --Wikipedia
Gregurias. Seleccion, 1910-1960 (1960, edited by Philip Ward)
Comment: A greguria is defined by Ramon as 'humour + metaphor' and was chosen because--among other reasons--it is used by farmers to describe the squealing of piglets chasing a sow. --Philip Ward

T. S. ELIOT (1888-1965) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Roger Scruton essay | post
Note: an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic and "one of the twentieth century's major poets." --Wikipedia
Selected Essays (1932)
Comment: Shaped the literary taste of the mid-century. --Jeffrey Hart
Comment: Here, one of the century's foremost literary innovators insists that innovation is only possible through an intense engagement of tradition. --The Intercollegiate Review
Two stars: Murder in the Cathedral (1935)
Comment: This is his most accessible play: the others are elliptical, mannered, sometimes tedious. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: The Cocktail Party (1950)
Three stars: Collected Poems, 1909-1962 (1963)
Comment: For twenty years I’ve / stared my level best / To see if evening—any evening—would suggest / A patient etherised upon a table; / In vain. I simply wasn’t able. --C.S. Lewis
Comment: His attempt in fact was to restore the greatest tradition of all, the tradition that forces poetry in any age to face the spirit of that age and reflect it without loss or blur. --Mark Van Doren
Comment: Eliot is one of the greatest English-speaking poets of the modern age, a formidable intellect chastely exploring the sensuous dark. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: Eliot's use [in 'Four Quartets'] of the garden as metaphor, his juxtaposition of nature's time and human time, struck a deep resonance. --Anne Whiston Spirn
A Neglected Aspect of Chapman (November 8, 1924) Etext: The New York Review of Books

Shmuel Yosef AGNON (1888-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Petri Liukkonen biography
Note: one of the central figures of modern Hebrew fiction. --Wikipedia
In the Heart of the Seas (1948)
Twenty-one Stories (1970) Criticism: Ravi Vyas essay
Banquet Speech (December 10, 1966) Etext: Nobel Prize

Giuseppe UNGARETTI (1888-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page | All Poetry
Note: an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic, academic ... A leading representative of the experimental trend known as Ermetismo ("Hermeticism") --Wikipedia
The Buried Harbour: Selected Poems (1970)
Selected Poems (1975)

John Crowe RANSOM (1888-1979) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Tillinghast
Selected Poems (1963)

Georg TRAKL (1887-1914) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation
Note: an Austrian poet. He is considered one of the most important Austrian Expressionists. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1968)
Twenty Poems of Georg Trakl (James Wright and Robert Bly translations) Etext: Richard P. Gabriel

Edwin MUIR (1887-1959) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation Criticism: Robert Richman essay
Note: an Orcadian poet, novelist and translator, born on a farm in Deerness on the Orkney Islands. He is remembered for his deeply felt and vivid poetry in plain language with few stylistic preoccupations. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1965)

Ruth BENEDICT (1887-1948) Etext: The Online Books Page
Patterns of Culture (1934)

Erwin SCHRODINGER (1887-1961) Humor: Scott Adams comic strip | Randy F. and Cecil Adams correspondence
Note: an Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics --Wikipedia
One star: What Is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell (1943)
Comment: invited biologists to think of life in more purely physical terms. --Edward O. Wilson
Statistical Thermodynamics (1946)
Nature and the Greeks (1954)
Comment: its thesis, that science is nothing more nor less than that habit of 'looking at the world in the Greek way.' --Raphael and McLeish
Science, Art and Play Etext: The Philosopher (1935)

Charles Galton DARWIN (1887-1962) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English physicist, the grandson of Charles Darwin. --Wikipedia
The Next Million Years (1952) Etext: Mr Singh Scribd
Comment: In this new creed, it will be necessary to revise the old doctrine of the sanctity of the individual human life as well and to create policies that would allow the very unlucky in life (including babies) not to survive and not selfishly waste limited, precious, natural resources needed by the functional upper classes. --G. Charles Steiner

Robinson JEFFERS (1887-1967) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets
Note: an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast. Most of Jeffers' poetry was written in narrative and epic form, but today he is also known for his short verse, and considered an icon of the environmental movement. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (1965)

Marianne MOORE (1887-1972) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Frank Kermode review
Note: an American Modernist poet and writer noted for her irony and wit. --Wikipedia
One star: "Poetry" (from Observations 1924) Criticism: Robert Pinsky essay
One star: "Marriage" (from Observations 1924)
The Complete Poems (1981) Criticism: William Logan review

Julian HUXLEY (1887-1975) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in the mid-twentieth century evolutionary synthesis. --Wikipedia
Evolution: The Modern Synthesis (1942)

St.-John PERSE (Marie-Rene-Auguste-Alexis Leger, 1887-1975)
One star: Anabasis (Anabase 1924)
One star: Birds (1966)
One star: Exile and Other Poems (1949)

Pierre Jean JOUVE (1887-1976) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French writer, novelist and poet. --Wikipedia
Despair Has Wings: Selected Poems (2007)

Samuel Eliot MORISON (1887-1976) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American historian noted for his works of maritime history that were both authoritative and highly readable. --Wikipedia
The Oxford History of the United States (1963)
Faith of a Historian (December 29, 1950) Etext: American Historical Association

Henri ALAIN-FOURNIER (Henri-Alban Fournier, 1886-1914)
Le Grand Meaulnes (1913)

Ronald FIRBANK (1886-1926)
Five Novels: The Artificial Princess (1915); Valmouth (1919); The Flower Beneath The Foot (1923); Prancing Nigger or Sorrow in Sunlight (1925); Concerning the Eccentricities of Cardinal Pirelli (1926);

Moshe-Leib HALPERN (1886-1932)
In New York (1982; In Nyu-York 1954)

Hermann BROCH (1886-1951)
The Sleepwalkers (Die Schlafwandler 1932)
One star: The Death of Virgil (Der Tod des Vergil 1945)
Hugo von Hofmannsthal and His Time (Hofmannsthal und seine Zeit 1974)

Gottfried BENN (1886-1956)
Selected Poems (1970)

H. D. (Hilda Doolittle 1886-1961) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Robert Gottlieb review
Selected Poems (1988)

Karl POLANYI (1886-1964)
Note: a Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, political economist, historical sociologist and social philosopher.... Polanyi is remembered today as the originator of substantivism, a cultural approach to economics, which emphasized the way economies are embedded in society and culture. --Wikipedia
The Great Transformation (1944)

TANIZAKI Junichiro (1886-1965)
One star: The Makioka Sisters (Edward Seidenstecker translation 1957; Sasameyuki ['light snow'] 1943-48)
Comment: a great Proustian novel concerned with an Osaka family, and their quest for a husband for one of the sisters, Yukiko. --Philip Ward

Velimir KHLEBNIKOV (1885-1922)
The King of Time: Selected Writings of the Russian Futurian (1990)

D. H. LAWRENCE (1885-1930) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Literature Network Criticism: post
Note: an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter --Wikipedia
Comment: T. S. Eliot and Wyndham Lewis, to name only two, attacked the lyric fiction of Lawrence precisely because of the moral polemic embodied in it. --Philip Rieff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud (1966) p. 191
Comment: some of his books undoubtedly seem, consciously or not, to stress the element of sex. --Henry James Forman
Two stars: Sons and Lovers (1913)
Comment: Lawrence has been less admired since the rise of militant feminism, yet 'Sons and Lovers', as a particular case (if not 'philosopy'), is unrivalled; Paul Morel's working class youth is thick with sensitive pain and observed life. --Raphael and McLeish
The Rainbow (1915) Criticism: James Wood review
Two stars: Women in Love (1921)
Comment: The Rainbow and Women in Love form a diptych; two sisters and their married destinies against the background of Nottingham farming and mining life. --Raphael and McLeish
Studies in Classic American Literature (1923)
Complete Poems (1964)
Comment: His animal poems are wonderful and liberating, and many others are convincing in their rhythms. --Raphael and McLeish
Collected Stories (1994)
Comment: 'Odour of Chrysanthemums' and 'The Rocking-Horse Winner' are the most memorable; but all are interesting, surprisingly relaxed. --Raphael and McLeish

Dino CAMPANA (1885-1932)
Orphic Songs and Other Poems (1991)

Ring LARDNER (1885-1933) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American sports columnist and short story writer best known for his satirical takes on the sports world, marriage, and the theatre. --Wikipedia
Comment: Edmund Wilson once said 'What bell might not Lardner ring if he set out to give us the works?' Lardner did give us the works. In the vernacular. There must have been something wrong with Wilson's bell. --Raphael and McLeish
You Know Me Al (1916)
Comment: Starting with 1914's 'A Busher's Letters Home,'a letter from a bragging ballplayer named Jack Keefe to his pal Al, Lardner painted a picture of everyday life in baseball that wasn't all Herculean battles and modern-day demigods. --Chris Foran
The Young Immigrunts (1920)
Comment: the narrator (ostensibly, Lardner's 4-year-old son) asks his father about his driving:
"'Are you lost daddy' I arsked tenderly.
"'Shut up' he explained." --Chris Foran
Haircut and Other Stories (1925)
Comment: In "Haircut," a small-town barber tells a newcomer about the town's leading character and the plot-twist chain of events that led to his exit. --Chris Foran

Sinclair LEWIS (1885-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Sinclair Lewis Society
Comment: [T]he most celebrated American novelist never to have written a great work of literature... --Alan Wolfe, 'The Opening of the Evangelical Mind' in 'The Atlantic Monthly' October, 2000 p. 58
Main Street (1920)
Comment: The publication of Main Street ranks with that of Uncle Tom's Cabin as one of the few literary events in American history that proved to be a political and social event as well. --Jane Smiley, New York Times Book Review, January 20, 2002, p. 10
One star: Babbitt (1922)
Comment: How often have the privileged taken to their bosoms the writers who execrated them! The Babbitts of America were to a great extent responsible for the success of Sinclair Lewis. --Raymond Aron, The Opium of the Intellectuals (1957), p. 212
Comment: a loving, never sentimental portrait of a small-town businessman... . --Raphael and McLeish
Arrowsmith (1925)
Comment: The perfect young man's book: a vision of a pure life devoted to the search for scientific truth, above money grubbing and hypocrisy. --Edward O. Wilson
Elmer Gantry (1927)
Comment: debunks religious revivalism through the person of one phoney preacher. --Raphael and McLeish
Dodsworth (1929)
It Can't Happen Here (1935)

Elinor WYLIE (1885-1951) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Carrie fan site
Last Poems (1982)

Hermann WEYL (1885-1955) Reference: The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive
Space, Time, Matter (Raum, Zeit, Materie 1918)
Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics (Gruppentheorie und Quantenmechanik 1928)

Ernst Robert CURTIUS (1885-1956)
European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages (1948)

Isak DINESEN (Karen Blixen, 1885-1962)
Comment: She had a magic way of endowing people with powers--beauty, clairvoyance, passion--undreamed of by the realists who surrounded her. Her world is cool, strangely lighted, and somehow perfect. --Mark Van Doren, The Great Ideas Today 1969, p. 295
The Roads Around Pisa (1934)
Out of Africa (1937)
Comment: I wouldn't mind calling this Isak Dinesen up. --Holden Caulfield
One star: Seven Gothic Tales (1937)
Comment: Sophisticated entertainments, with appealing irony implicit in deliberately old-fashioned narrative method. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Winter's Tales (1942)
Comment: Like most of their [Merimee, Hoffmann, and Kleist's] work, her 'Gothic' or 'Winter's' tales are generally set in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century, but Dinesen's are deliberately suffused with a courtly and refined decadence. --Michael Dirda

Niels BOHR (1885-1964)
The Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution (1922)
Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge (1958)
On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules (Philosophical Magazine 26:1–24 1913) Etext: IHEP/COMPAS [pdf]

Francois MAURIAC (1885-1970)
The Desert of Love (1949; Le Desert de l'amour 1925)
Therese (1928; Therese Desqueyroux 1927)
The Woman of the Pharisees (1946; La Pharisienne 1941)

Ezra POUND (1885-1972) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Mark Ford review | post
Note: an American expatriate poet and critic of the early modernist movement. --Wikipedia
Personae (1909)
The Spirit of Romance (1910)
Comment: his study of Provencal poetry... . --Michael Dirda
Cathay (1915)
Homage to Sextus Propertius (1919)
Comment: Most enjoyable of all is the swaggering translation, really an 'imitations'... . --Michael Dirda
Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920)
Comment: an acid overview of the English literary scene... . --Michael Dirda
One star: Personae: Collected Poems (1926)
Comment: One muat be thankful for what he is and realize that after years of ridicule from calf-brains he indubitably stands upon an eminence from which he must not be easily shaken. --Herbert S. Gorman
ABC of Reading (1934)
Comment: An epitome of the aging aesthetic movement that will be forever known as modernism. --Richard Brookhiser
The Pisan Cantos (1948; LXXIV–LXXXIV of The Cantos, 1915-1962)
The Letters of Ezra Pound, 1907-1941 (1950, D. D. Paige, editor)
One star: The Cantos (1915-1962)
Comment: anyone interested in poetry should read the first seven or so cantos, most of the Pisan Cantos ... and such dazzling set pieces as the 'with usura' aria of Canto XLV and the 'pull down thy vanity' climax of Canto LXXXI. --Michael Dirda
One star: Literary Essays (1968)

Yevgeni Ivanovich ZAMYATIN (1884-1937) Reference: R. Kreuzer fan site
My (1924)
Comment: Indeed, the ways by which the men and women in 'We' resist 'social engineering' and futuristic regimes are both enigmatic and engaging. --Thomas Galton Marullo, The Review of Politics, Summer 2003, pp. 466-467
Comment: ...a nightmare of life in the distant future, when human beings are known by numbers and they live in the One State ruled by the so-called Benefactor. --Philip Ward

Angelos SIKELIANOS (1884-1951)
Selected Poems (1996)

Yahya Kemal BEYATLI (1884-1958)
Note: a leading Turkish poet and author, as well as a politician and diplomat. --Wikipedia
Selected Poems (S. Behlul Toyger translation, 1965)
Comment: Bayath resists the Westernization of Turkish culture with dignity and restraint. His poetry is small in extent and circumscribed in range, but as perfect in its richness and harmony. It is reminiscent of Turkish miniatures. --Philip Ward

Eugene HERRIGEL (1884-1955)
Zen in the Art of Archery (1948)

Sean O'CASEY (1884-1964)
One star: Juno and the Paycock (1925)
One star: The Shadow of a Gunman (1925)
One star: The Plough and the Stars (1926)

Etienne GILSON (1884-1978)
The Unity of Philosophical Experience (1937)
The Arts of the Beautiful (1965)
Comment: Gilson (a noted and dependable critic) writes with grace and style not of pictures only, but of art in general. --Raphael and McLeish

Jaroslav HASEK (1883-1923)
Note: a Czech humorist, satirist, writer and anarchist --Wikipedia
One star: The Good Soldier Svejk (Osudy dobreho vojaka Svejka za svetove valky, 1920-23)
Note: also spelled Schweik or Schwejk --Wikipedia
Comment: Endearing, caustic satire on war and the lunatic proceduralists who wage it. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: It is perhaps not a very great book. It gives me, however, a sense of comic relief when I am confronted with the arrogance of the powerful. --Dante Della-Terza

Franz KAFKA (1883-1924) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Kafka Project Criticism: post
Note: a German-language writer of novels and short stories, regarded by critics as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Kafka strongly influenced genres such as existentialism. --Wikipedia
Comment: He felt imprisoned by the insurance company in which he was obliged by his father to work until tuberculosis ended his working life. --Philip Ward
One star: Wedding Preparations in the Country (Hochzeitsvorbereitungen auf dem Lande, 1907-1908)
One star: Description of a Struggle (Beschreibung eines Kampfes, 1909)
One star: In the Penal Colony (In der Strafkolonie, 1913)
Two stars: The Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung, 1915)
Comment: Kafka's most haunting story, in which he found a perfect image for his pervasive sense of alienation. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: What have I become? / Uncertain, Gregor Samsa / puts out some feelers. --David M. Bader, Haiku U.
One star: A Country Doctor (Ein Landarzt, 1919)
Comment: The doctor goes to the patient-with-wound on strange horses; at some level, we go there too. --Arnold Weinstein
The Blue Octavo Notebooks (Oxforder Oktavhefte, 1917-1919)
Diaries (Tagebucher, 1910-1923)
Four stars: The Trial (Der Process, 1925) Criticism: David Luhrssen review
Comment: allegory of the relationship of man to a God who is omnipotent and incomprehensible, whose moral authority he recognizes while struggling against His concrete manifestations which are always absurd or unjust or both. --Dwight Macdonald
(Muirs translation 1953)
Two stars: The Castle (Das Schloss, 1926)
Comment: 'The Castle' is a superb comic chiller of the search for a spiritual keep. --Raphael and McLeish
(Muirs translation 1957)
Amerika or Der Verschollene (1927)
Comment: 'America' is a comedy of the immigrant Kafka never was (he never saw America). --Raphael and McLeish
(Willa and Edwin Muir translation 1962)
The Zurau Aphorisms (Die Zurauer Aphorismen, 1931)

Austin Tappan WRIGHT (1883-1931) Reference: Andy Wood fan site
Note: an American legal scholar and author --Wikipedia
Islandia (1942)

Joseph SCHUMPETER (1883-1950) Etext: Ludwig von Mises Institute Reference: The Economist column Criticism: The Economist essay
Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1942)
Comment: Schumpeter captured the essence of modern economic development with his focus on technological change and the 'creative destruction' that it brings about. ... --Jeffrey Sachs

John Maynard KEYNES (1883-1946) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Archive for the History of Economic Thought Criticism: post
Note: a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments. --Wikipedia
The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919)
Comment: [Keynes said] 'Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist'. Yet for over eight decades...our world-historical view [of Versailles] has been influenced by the same defunct economist who promulgated the assertion. --Andrew Roberts
The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935-1936)
Comment: Influential in suggesting that the business cycle can be modified by government investment and manipulation of tax rates --Jeffrey Hart
Comment: This book did for Big Government what Rachel Carson's Silent Spring did for the tse-tse fly. --The Intercollegiate Review

Mani LEIB (Mani Leib Brahinsky 1883-1953)
Selected Poems

Jose ORTEGA y Gasset (1883-1955)
Invertebrate Spain (1921)
Comment: 'Spineless Spain' --ed.
Comment: The cancer that was fatally undermining the fragile stability of Spanish society was, he claimed, the 'particularist' propensityof each Spanish individual or group to live purely for himself or itself, heedless of others, and as he put it, not to contar con los demas (to have to deal with others). --Curtis Cate, 'How Vertebrate Is Spain,' The Salisbury Review, Spring 2005
One star: The Revolt of the Masses (1929)
Comment: Prophesied the 20th century's debauchery of democracy and science, the barbarism of the specialist, and the inevitable fatuity of public opinion. --George Gilder
Morbid Democracy Etext: Modern Age (Summer 1957) [pdf]
Pedagogy and Anachronism Etext: Modern Age (Summer 1957) [pdf]

Nikos KAZANTZAKIS (1883-1957)
The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel (1938)
Zorba the Greek (1946)
The Greek Passion (1948)

William Carlos WILLIAMS (1883-1963) Etext: Academy of American Poets Criticism: post
Note: an American poet closely associated with modernism and imagism. --Wikipedia
Spring and All (1923)
Paterson (1946-1958; 1963)
Two stars: Collected Poems (2 vol., 1988, 1989)

Sholem ASCH (Szulim Asz 1883-1953)
East River (1946)

James JOYCE (1882-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Brian Phillips essay Humor: Stephan Pastis comic strip | The Onion
Note: an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. --Wikipedia
Comment: Ireland’s most famous exile --Emily Allen
One star: Dubliners (1914)
Comment: Small lives seen closely enough to disclose eternal truths. --Lloyd Weinreb
Comment: One story, 'The Dead', is a masterpiece. The rest would perhaps not seem so interesting now if Joyce had not gone on to write Ulysses and Finnegan's Wake. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) Criticism: H. G. Wells review
Comment: a 'conventional' narrative of Stephen Dedalus's Dublin adolescence at the turn of the century, branded by Catholic bigotry; increasingly less 'difficult' in the light of its derivatives. --Raphael and McLeish
Three stars: Ulysses (1922) Criticism: Joe Carter essay | Franz S. Klein essay | Tim Cavanaugh review
Comment: This happened with many of us: Ulysses gradually--but with an effect of suddenness--became accessible. It was because in the interim we had been reading diluted Joyce in writers like Faulkner and so had got used to his ways, at second remove. --Mary McCarthy
Comment: a turgid welter of schoolboy pornography --Edith Wharton
Comment: To the uninitiated, it appeared that Mr. Joyce had taken some half million assorted words--many such as are not ordinarily heard in reputable circles--shaken them up in a colossal hat, laid them end to end. --Dwight Macdonald
Comment: All of English literature in one book--compressed and mythologized through the language and vision of a unique modern artist. --Robert Brustein
One star: Finnegan's Wake (1939)
Comment: It was the end product of an evolution that conceivably could be called tragic, since it culminated in a book from which most readers are shut out. --Mark Van Doren

Virginia WOOLF (1882-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an English writer, and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century. --Wikipedia
Comment: that poster girl for twentieth-century feminism, department of snobbish literary neurasthenia. --Roger Kimball
Mrs. Dalloway in Bond Street (The Dial July 1923)
Comment: The story appears to set up Clarissa as the whipping boy of an outdated and deluded Victorianism. ... High Modernism can, in this way, feel a bit smug, a bit self-satisfied in its intellectual and political superiority, and ultimately a bit cold. --Emily Allen
One star: Mrs. Dalloway (1925)
Comment: Clarissa's day, the impressions she gives and receives, the memories and recognitions which stir in her, the events which are initiated remotely and engineered almost to touching distance of the impervious Clarissa, capture in a definite matrix the drift of thought and feeling in a period, the point of view of a class, and seem almost to indicate the strength and weakness of an entire civilization. --John M. Crawford
Two stars: To the Lighthouse (1927)
Comment: It gets at the amazingly complex but ephemeral ideas and emotions that are there every second in everyone without ever telling you anything straight out. --Duncan Kennedy
One star: Orlando (1928)
Comment: was inspired by her own strange conception of myself, my family, and Knole my family home. --Vita Sackville West
Three Guineas (1928)
Comment: deftly examined the relationship between gender and social values in education and the professions, and the implications of this relationship for both individuals and society as a whole. --Constance Buchanan
One star: A Room of One's Own (1929)
Comment: Long essay on the need for women to have economic independence to fulfill their potential. Beautifully written, though now (dated by the changes it helped to bring about) seems rather ladylike. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: In pointing to some of the connections between the poverty of women's institutions and the poverty of women's history, Woolf illuminates questions that we have not yet managed to resolve, and creates a new character--Shakespeare's sister--to live in our collective imagination. --Clarissa Atkinson
One star: The Waves (1931)
Comment: 'The Waves' is marvelous: a richly brocaded poetic tapestry, close- patterned with Bloomsbury figures. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: I still think Woolf's The Waves should get at least two stars :) --Timothy Burns
Between the Acts (1941)
Comment: It [the title] refers most obviously to the intervals in the village pageant when 'the audience slipped the noose, split up into scraps and fragments'; then to that longer interval between the first and second European wars; and the development of this latter theme makes it clear that it refers also to the strained relationship between Isa and Giles Oliver. --C. Basham
The Movies and Reality Etext: The New Republic (August 4, 1926)
The Letters of Virginia Woolf (edited by Nigel Nicolson, 6 vol., 1975-80)
Comment: The sheer verbal skill in these dashed-off letters is superb--and they are marvelously perceptive and penetrating. --Bernard Bailyn

A. S. EDDINGTON (1882-1944) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Internal Constitution of the Stars (1926)
The Nature of the Physical World (1928)
Comment: This was perhaps the most memorable of several books of popular science that both fired and helped to gratify my curiosity about the basis, bounds and inner workings fo physical reality. --Willard V. Quine

Jean GIRAUDOUX (1882-1944)
Four Plays (1958)
Ondine; Enchanted; Madwoman of Challot; Apollo of Bellac;

Sigrid UNDSET (1882-1949) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Nobel Prize | Petri Liukkonen biography Criticism: post
Kristin Lavransdatter (1922)
Comment: This long tale of a formidible medieval Norsewoman who fought for her ideals, embodied as they were in her family and political allegiances, enthralled me as I pondered what the twentieth-century equivalent of her life as an American woman would be. --Patricia Albjerg Graham

P. W. BRIDGMAN (1882-1961) Reference: Nobel Prize
The Logic of Modern Physics (1927)

Jacques MARITAIN (1882-1973) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Jacques Maritain Association | Jacques Maritain Center
Note: a French Catholic philosopher. ...An author of more than 60 books, he helped to revive St. Thomas Aquinas for modern times and is a prominent drafter of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. --Wikipedia
Introduction to Philosophy (Elements de philosophie, 1920)
Theonas: Conversations of a Sage (1933; Theonas ou les entretiens d'un sage et deux philosophes sur diverses matieres inegalement actuelles, 1920)
Art and Scholasticism (1962; Art et scolastique, 1920)
Comment: attempted to direct philosophy's attention toward the good of the artistic product rather than the good of the artist or viewer. --Daniel B. Gallagher
The Frontiers of Poetry (1962; Frontières de la poesie, 1927)
Distinguish to Unite: or, The Degrees of Knowledge (1959; Distinguer pour unir: ou, les degres du savoir, 1932)
Freedom in the Modern World (1935; Du regime temporel et de la liberte, 1933)
True Humanism (1938); or Integral Humanism: Temporal and Spiritual Problems of a New Christendom (1968) (Humanisme integral: problemes temporels et spirituals d'une nouvelle chretiente, 1936)
The Conquest of Freedom (in Freedom: Its Meaning, 1940)
Scholasticism and Politics (with Mortimer J. Adler, 1940)
The Rights of Man and Natural Law (1943; Les droits de l'homme et la loi naturelle, 1942)
Saint Thomas and the problem of evil (1942)

Ludwig von MISES (1881-1973) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Ludwig von Mises Institute
Note: a philosopher, Austrian School economist, sociologist, and classical liberal. ... had a significant influence on the libertarian movement in the United States in the mid-20th century. --Wikipedia
Human Action (1949)

Juan Ramon JIMENEZ (1881-1958)
Invisible Reality: Poems (La realidad invisible 1917-1920, 1924)

Pierre TEILHARD DE CHARDIN (1881-1955)
Comment: His ideas, when formularized, bear an uncomfortable resemblance to a baptized Herbert Spencer. --Kenneth Rexroth, More Classics Revisited (1989), p. 47
The Phenomenon of Man (1955) Criticism: Peter Medawar review

LU XUN (1881-1936) [Lu Hsun] Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: the pen name of Zhou Shuren ... one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th century. --Wikipedia
One star: Selected Stories (1972); Silent China; selected writings, Gladys Yang translation, 1973)
Comment: [A Madman's Diary (1918)] Do we have evidence that this madman is the bearer of some awful truth about the society he lives in, or is he truly mad? Is there a kind of truth, perhaps a metaphoric one, in the idea of an entire culture made up of cannibals? --Grant L. Voth
Comment: [In the Wine Shop (1924)] Perhaps the course of Chinese history after the Republican Revolution of 1911, in which Lu Xun and his generation had invested so much hope, has broken their spirits. Perhaps it is simply the world-weariness of age. Perhaps the world has prepared such traps for us all. --Grant L. Voth

Guillaume APOLLINAIRE (1880-1918) Etext: Thracian Minorities Criticism: Marjorie Perloff review | Donald Lyons review Apollinaire,
Comment: Experimental, lyric poet of the early 20th century, in style somewhat akin to Owen, though without the toughness of the trenches. --Raphael and McLeish
Selected Writings (Roger Shattuck translation 1971)

Aleksandr BLOK (1880-1921)
The Twelve and Other Poems (1970)

A. L. WEGENER (Alfred Lothar Wegener, 1880-1930) Reference: The Changing Earth Criticism: post
The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane 1915)

Lytton STRACHEY (1880-1932) Etext: The Online Books Page
Eminent Victorians (1918)
Comment: Elegant, mocking studies... . The book marks the beginning of the immense influence of Bloomsbury on modern British biography... . --Raphael and McLeish
Queen Victoria (1921)

Andrey BELY (1880-1934)
Petersburg (1916, 1922)

PREMCHAND (Dhanpat Ray Shrivastav, 1880-1936)
The Gift of a Cow (Godan 1936)
The World of Premchand: a selection of short stories (1969)

Oswald SPENGLER (1880-1936) Reference: Spengler column by David P. Goldman Criticism: post
Decline of the West (1918)
Comment: Nevertheless, Spengler's deterministic allegiance to the analogy between civilizations and organisms ultimately infuses his discussion with an air of unreality. --Roger Kimball, The New Criterion, June 2002, p. 5

Robert MUSIL (1880-1942)
The Confusions of Young Torless (Die Verwirrungen des Zoglings Torless 1906)
Comment: we see Musil in his first attempts at the depiction of psychic reality, here as it is manifested in the growth process of a young man in an Austrian military school. --Sven Birkerts
One star: The Man Without Qualities (Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften 1930-43) Criticism: Roger Kimball review
Comment: The plot is, as it were, a coatrack, a pretext for the play of ideas. We don't read Musil for the story--we read him for his mental ferocity, his humor, and his uncanny grasp of the contradictions of the modern age. --Sven Birkerts

Richard H. TAWNEY (1880-1962)
The Acquisitive Society (1920)
Equality (1931)

LENIN (Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, 1879-1924) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Marxist Internet Archive Criticism: Slavoj Zizek essay | Slavoj Zizek review
Comment: If there'd been no Lenin, I'd have stayed a choirboy and seminarian... --Stalin, quoted by Alexander Nazaryan, Birth of a Despot, review of 'Young Stalin' by Simon Sebag Montefiore, The New Criterion, October 2007, p. 78
Comment: There once was a Marxist called Lenin / Who did two or three million men in / --That's a lot to have done in / But where he did one in / That grand Marxist Stalin did ten in. --Robert Conquest, quoted in 'He Told Us So,' by David Pryce Jones, The New Criterion, February 2000, p. 69
What is to be Done? (1902)
Comment: ...the work that made his name in every sense, since it was the first he signed 'Lenin.' --Martin Malia, New York Review of Books, November 1, 2001, p. 32
Imperialism (1917)
One star: The State and Revolution (1918)
Comment: To Lenin belongs the credit for formulating, for the first time, a corpus of Marxian political theory. --Robert B. Downs
Letter to American Workers (August 22, 1918)
Selected Works (1964)

Vachel LINDSAY (1879-1931) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation
Note: an American poet. He is considered the father of modern singing poetry, as he referred to it, in which verses are meant to be sung or chanted. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1925)
The Art of the Moving Picture (1915) Criticism: Francis Hackett review

Paul KLEE (1879-1940)
Comment: These two beautiful illustrated notebooks of the great Swiss artist demonstrate how good a teacher he must have been at the Bauhaus, and how discipline and patient investigation of colours and the excitement of 'taking a line for a walk' can be coupled with poetic and graphic originality of the highest order. --Philip Ward
The Thinking Eye (1956)
The Nature of Nature (1970)

Miles FRANKLIN (1879-1954) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Australian writer and feminist... . She was committed to the development of a uniquely Australian form of literature --Wikipedia
My Brilliant Career (1901)

Albert EINSTEIN (1879-1955) Etext: The Online Books Page | Lesikar Reference: Albert Einstein Online Criticism: post
Comment: The most important physicist since Newton. --Michael Lind
Two stars: Relativity, the Special and General Theory (Uber die Spezielle und die Allgemeine Relativitatstheorie 1905-15)
Comment: ...after he finished his theory of general relativity, [Einstein] concluded that the gravitational potentials in that theory characterized the physical qualities of empty space and served as a medium that could transmit disturbances. He began referring to this as a new way to conceive of the ether. --Walter Isaacson, 'Einstein: His Life and Universe', p. 318
Comment: In a way, relativity has elaborated on the Copernican revolution--the idea that the Earth is no longer at the center of the universe. Relativity says there's no place or state of motion that is special --Richard Wofson
Sidelights on Relativity (1920-21)
Two stars: The Meaning of Relativity (1922)
The Method of Theoretical Physics (1933)
The Evolution of Physics (1938, with Leopold Infield [or Infeld] 1898-1968)
Autobiographical Notes

Wallace STEVENS (1879-1955) Etext: Academy of American Poets Reference: The Wallace Stevens Society | Hartford Friends and Enemies fan site
Note: an American Modernist poet. ... he spent most of his life working as an executive for an insurance company --Wikipedia
Comment: Of course he had time to write poetry; he was house counsel! --Steve Cornelius, Attorney at Law
The Necessary Angel (1951)
Two stars: Collected Poems (1954)
Comment: Stevens thought of his poetry as a world, which, to distinguish it from the 'real' world, he called his mundo. --Frank Kermode
Opus Posthumous (1957)
The Palm at the End of the Mind (1972)
Selected Poems (2009) Criticism: Helen Vendler review

Nagai KAFU (1879-1959)
Comment: Kafu's two loves were the French Naturalism of Zola (whom he translated into Japanese) and the Edo Culture that was disappearing as he was writing novels to celebrate the street life, the arts, and the teahouses and courtesans of the rapidly-changing capital. --Philip Ward
Kafu the Scribbler: the Life and Writings by Edward Seidensticker (1965)

E. M. FORSTER (1879-1970) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Alan Hollinghurst review | post
Note: an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist. He is known best for his ironic and well-plotted novels examining class difference and hypocrisy in early 20th-century British society. --Wikipedia
Howard's End (1910)
Two stars: A Passage to India (1924)
Comment: a brave. liberal view of British India at its confident, uncertain zenith. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: It conveys no more than his modus operandi to state that the book circles about a young Indian, Dr. Aziz, who is unjustly accused of attempted assault by a hysterical English girl and who therefore serves as a hinge from which both humanities--British and Indian--break. --Herbert S. Gorman

Edward THOMAS (1878-1917) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Academy of American Poets
Note: an Anglo-Welsh poet and essayist. He is commonly considered a war poet, although few of his poems deal directly with his war experiences. --Wikipedia
Collected Poems (1920)

Eino LEINO (Armas Eino Leopold Lonnbohm, 1878-1926)
Helkavirsta (1903 Whitsongs, and 1916)

L. J. HENDERSON (1878-1942)
The Fitness of the Environment (1913)
The Order of Nature (1917)

Robert WALSER (1878-1956)
Selected Stories (2002)

Alfred DOBLIN (1878-1957)
Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929)

Martin BUBER (1878-1965) Criticism: post
I and Thou (1923)

Upton SINCLAIR (1878-1968) Etext: The Online Books Page
The Jungle (1906) Criticism: Christopher Hitchens review
Comment: Classic realistic--compare Frank Norris' 'The Pit'--expose of Chicago stockyards during the heyday of union-bashing beef barons. --Raphael and McLeish

Raymond ROUSSEL (1877-1933)
Locus Solus (1914)

Leon TROTSKY (1877-1940) Etext: The Online Books Page | Marxist Internet Archive Criticism: post
Note: born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein; was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army. --Wikipedia
Comment: first applied the term 'national socialism' to Stalin's program of industrial autarky in 1930. --Michael Weiss
Comment: Trotsky's failure as a leader came from his neglect, or more probably his inability, to create a machine of able and loyal lieutenants. --Eric Hoffer
The History of the Russian Revolution (1930)
- (Max Eastman translation 1932)
Comment: We are not human by way of a fixed human nature, but rather through participation in a process of growth by which our very consciousness of what it is to be human, is evolving. --Thomas K. Simpson

Frederick SODDY (1877-1956) Reference: Nobel
The Chemistry of the Radio Elements (1911)

Hermann HESSE (1877-1962) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Narcissus and Goldmund (1930)
One star: The Glass Bead Game or Magister Ludi (Der Glasperlenspiel, 1943)
Translations: Mervyn Savill (1949); Richard and Clara Winston (1969).
Comment: Hesse postulates a province called 'Castalia' (in Greek myth, the Castalian Spring on Mount Parnassus is sacred to Apollo and the Muses), where the highest political office belongs to the sage Master of the Glass Bead Game, who personifies the serenity and aesthetic appreciation resulting from a life devoted to the refinement of mind and soul. --Philip Ward

Muhammed IQBAL (1876-1938) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a philosopher, poet and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. --Wikipedia
Secrets of the Self (Asrar-i-Khudi, 1915)
Comment: this poem asserts the role of the individual over what seemed to Iqbal to be the false emphasis of the Sufis on mystical communion with the Divine. --A Guide to Oriental Classics
Hints of Selflessness (Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, 1918)
Comment: This long Persian poem is a passionate expression of the bases of an ideal Islamic society. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

Sherwood ANDERSON (1876-1941) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Sherwood Anderson Foundation
Note: an American novelist and short story writer, known for subjective and self-revealing works. --Wikipedia
One star: Winesburg, Ohio (1919)
Comment: These 23 stories present, in straightforward, intense style, moments in the lives of inhabitants of the kind of small town in which he grew up. --Raphael and McLeish
Death in the Woods (1933)

Max JACOB (1876-1944)
Selected Poems (1999)

David LINDSAY (1876-1945) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Scottish author --Wikipedia
A Voyage to Arcturus (1920)

George Macaulay TREVELYN (1876-1962)
History of England (1926)
Comment: While dramatic and narrowly political events are not neglected, the sharpest focus is reserved for the life of the people as a whole. --Clifton Fadiman

/\ Late 19th Century

\/ 1851-1875 | 1901-1925 /\

Revised April 29, 2015.