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Read Me What to read, 1751-1800

\/ 1701-1750 | 1801-1825 /\

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Comment: If a man wants to read good books, he must make a point of avoiding bad ones; for life is short, and time and energy limited. --Arthur Schopenhauer

\/ Later 18th Century

Thomas Babbington MACAULAY (1800-1859; 1st Baron Macaulay) Etext: The Online Books Page | Modern History Sourcebook | Poem Hunter Reference: The Victorian Web
Note: a British historian and Whig politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist and reviewer; his books on British history were hailed as literary masterpieces. --Wikipedia
Comment: I wish I was as cocksure of anything as Tom Macaulay is of everything. --William Lamb
The History of England (1849-61)
Comment: Old hat, of course; the quintessential Whig historian. Make allowance for his prejudices, and--pace T. S. Eliot--enjoy the suprerb narrative style. --Raphael and McLeish
Poems (1911)
Opposing Copyright Extension (April 6, 1842) Etext: Dennis S. Karjala fan site

William Holmes McGUFFEY (1800-1873) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American professor and college president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, one of America's first and most widely used series of textbooks. --Wikipedia
Eclectic Readers (1836-37)

Alexander PUSHKIN (1799-1837) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter | Poetarium
Note: a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. --Wikipedia
Boris Godunov (1825)
Peter the Great's Negro (Arap Petra Velikogo, 1828)
Scene from Faust ((1828) Etext: The New Criterion (April 2010, Alan Shaw translation)
One star: The Stationmaster (Stanzionny smotritel, 1831)
One star: Eugene Onegin (Yevgeniy Onegin, 1825-1832)
Comment: The eight 'chapters', or more properly 'canti', of the verse novel each contain some fifty fourteen-line stanzas, ranging from the expression of Pushkin's own poetic theories, parody, and polemics, on the one hand, to the most exquisite songs... --Philip Ward
The Queen of Spades (Pikovaya dama, 1834)
The Captain's Daughter (Kapitanskaya dochka, 1836)
Dubrovsky (1841)
Collected Poetry (1984)

James HOGG (1799-1845) Etext: The Online Books Page |
Note: a Scottish poet and novelist who wrote in both Scots and English. --Wikipedia
Kilmeny (The Queen's Wake 1813)
One star: The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824)
Comment: This masterpiece is a stunning amalgam of the weird tale, the mystery story, and the madman's confession, as well as a biting satire on religious fanaticism in Scotland during the early eighteenth century (the place and time of its action). --Michael Dirda

Thomas HOOD (1799-1845) Etext: The Online Books Page
Poems (1847)

Honore de BALZAC (1799-1850) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comedie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. --Wikipedia
One star: The Wild Ass's Skin (La Peau de Chagrin, 1831)
One star: Louis Lambert (1832)
Comment: an autobiographical novel of a boy prodigy... --Philip Ward
Three stars: Eugenie Grandet (1833)
Comment: tracing the rise of a small vine-grower to a position of wealth and power... --Philip Ward
Three stars: Le Pere Goriot (1835)
Comment: Old Goriot--a bourgeois King Lear living in a pension--is but one panel in 'The Human Comedy', and a good introduction to its brilliant pageant of realism and fantasy, of observation and monstrous fancy. --Raphael and McLeish
Two stars: The Girl with the Golden Eyes (Fille aux yeux d’or, 1835)
Comment: an exposé of a city grown heartless in its ruthless consumption. Here, the eponymous girl is less a character than a commodity, never recognized as fully human by those who buy, sell, and steal her. --Emily Allen
Seraphita (1835)
Comment: ...Swedenborgian romance... --Philip Ward
Cesar Birotteau (1838)
One star: Ursule Mirouet (1841)
Two stars: La Cousine Bette (1846)
One star: A Harlot High and Low (Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes, 1847)
Le Cousin Pons (1847)

Giacomo LEOPARDI (1798-1837) Etext: The Online Books Page | Project Gutenberg Reference: Dan Mihalache essay
Note: an Italian poet, essayist, philosopher, and philologist --Wikipedia
Comment: the poet of despair--his own and that (by assumption) of the human race, which he considered to have no reason for hope in this world or the next. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Canti (1820-1837)
Comment: the hunchbacked Leopardi was the finest Italian poet of the 19th century... --Philip Ward
Operette morali (1827)
(Essays and Dialogues, translated by Charles Edwards, 1882)
(Moral Tales, 1983, translated by Patrich Creagh)

Adam Bernard MICKIEWICZ (1798-1855) Etext: The Online Books Page
Pan Tadeusz (1834)

Auguste COMTE (1798-1857) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. --Wikipedia
Two stars: A Course of Positive Philosophy (Cours de Philosophie Positive, 1830-42)
Comment: According to his system, the laws established by science reveal a cosmic order, a permanent order of human societies, and an order of historical development. --Raymond Aron
Comment: The procession is from the simple to the complex, with each field supplying basic elements for the science that follows it. Furthermore, Comte states, each branch of knowledge has passed through the three historical stages: the theological, the metaphysical or abstract, and the scientific or positive. --Robert B. Downs
Comment: [his] religious interests suffused positivism with a metaphysics strongly influenced by Catholic theology. --Carolina Armenteros

Adalbert STIFTER (1797-1868) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Austrian writer, poet, painter, and pedagogue. He was especially notable for the vivid natural landscapes depicted in his writing --Wikipedia
Indian Summer (Der Nachsommer, 1857)
Comment: it is the only German book after Goethe that has any magic for me. --Friedrich Nietzsche
Tales (Erzahlungen, 1869)

Mary SHELLEY (1797-1851) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer --Wikipedia
One star: Frankenstein (1818)
Comment: Pregnant with Freudian clues, the monster's story is a true original among imitations. --Raphael and McLeish

Jeremias GOTTHELF (1797-1854) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: Albert Bitzius ... was a Swiss novelist, best known by his pen name of Jeremias Gotthelf. --Wikipedia
The Black Spider (Die Schwarze Spinne, 1842)
Comment: often touched the Homeric --Thomas Mann

Heinrich HEINE (1797-1856) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry in Translation | Poem Hunter Criticism: post
Note: a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic. --Wikipedia
Complete Poems (The Complete Poems of Heinrich Heine: A Modern English Version, Hal Draper, trans. 1982)
Comment: A Jew among Germans, a seeker after a God his reason told him to dismiss, Heine is a poet of contradictions with an outstanding lyrical gift --Raphael and McLeish

Alfred de VIGNY (1797-1863) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French poet, playwright, and novelist. --Wikipedia
Chatterton (1835)
Poems (Oeuvres Poetiques, 1978)

Charles LYELL (1797-1875) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a British lawyer and the foremost geologist of his day. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology, which popularised James Hutton's concepts of uniformitarianism – the idea that the earth was shaped by the same processes still in operation today --Wikipedia
Comment: which the future historian will recognize as having produced a revolution in natural science... --Charles Darwin
One star: Principles of Geology (1830-33)
Comment: His three-volume Principles of Geology (1830-1833) and his Elements of Geology (1838) still remain the foundation works of modern geology ... --Jane Jacobs
Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man (1863)

GHALIB (1797-1869) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan ... was a classical Urdu and Persian poet from the Mughal Empire during British colonial rule. He used his pen-names of Ghalib ... and Asad --Wikipedia
Comment: ...generally regarded as the greatest of Urdu poets. --A Guide to Oriental Classics
One star: Love Sonnets of Ghalib (Sarfaraz K. Niazi translation, 2002; Divan-i-Ghalib, c. 1816; )

William H. PRESCOTT (1796-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an American historian and Hispanist, who is widely recognized by historiographers to have been the first American scientific historian. --Wikipedia
Comment: He frequently [due to his impaired eyesight] kept about sixty pages in his memory for several days, and went over the whole mass five or six times, molding and remolding the sentences at each successive turn. --Allan Nevins
One star: History of the Conquest of Mexico (1843)
Comment: One of those monumental narrative histories which (rightly or wrongly) historians seldom now attempt; describes Cortes' conquest of the Aztec empire in grandiloquent style and with immense local detail--even though Prescott never once himself set foot in Mexico. --Raphael and McLeish
History of the Conquest of Peru (1847)

John KEATS (1795-1821) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley --Wikipedia
Comment: Uneven and at times too obvious in his appeal to adolescence, Keats is one of the stereotypes, almost, of a Romantic poet. --Raphael and McLeish
I Stood Tiptoe Upon a Little Hill (1816)
One star: On First Looking into Chapman's Homer (1816)
Two stars: Endymion (1817)
Hyperion (1818)
Two stars: The Eve of St. Agnes (1819) Humor: Avery Dulles poem
One star: Ode on a Grecian Urn (1819)
One star: Ode to a Nightingale (1819)
Ode to Psyche (1819)
La Belle Dame sans Merci (1819)
Ode on Melancholy (1819)
To Autumn (1819)
Lamia (1819)
Letters of John Keats (1816-1820)
Comment: Teems with creative excitement; ranges from specific to speculative; has magnanimity which can engage with Shakespeare, Milton and Wordsworth, and a comedy of perception shot through with the tragedy of Keats's life. --Raphael and McLeish
Fancy (1820)
Lines on the Mermaid Tavern (1820)

George DARLEY (1795-1846) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter
Note: an Irish poet, novelist, and critic. --Wikipedia
Nepenthe (1835)
Selected Poems (1978)

Thomas CARLYLE (1795-1881) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Orestes Brownson review
Note: a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher during the Victorian era. He called economics "the dismal science" --Wikipedia
One star: Sartor Resartus (1833-34)
One star: History of the French Revolution (1837)
One star: On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History (1841)
Comment: This historian-essayist held the theory that the history of mankind consisted in the biographies of its great men and that there was such a cult as hero worhip. To an author with such a preconceived theory the temptation to strain facts to illustrate it is well-nigh irrestistible. --Philip K. Hitti
Past and Present (1843)
Comment: in an age when religious belief and the social order were increasingly under assault, Carlyle's 'gospel of earnestness,' as it was called, was a revelation. --Rochelle Gursein
One star: Frederick the Great (1858-65)

William Cullen BRYANT (1794-1878) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | Sonnet Central
Note: an American romantic poet, journalist, and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post. --Wikipedia
One star: To a Waterfowl (1818)
One star: Robert of Lincoln (1855)

George GROTE (1794-1871) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English political radical and classical historian --Wikipedia
The History of Greece (1846-1856)
Comment: In some respects, Grote's work is a defence of the Athenian democracy. --J. A. Hammerton

William WHEWELL (1794-1866) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science --Wikipedia
Of a Liberal Education in General (1845)

John Gibson LOCKHART (1794-1854) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Scottish writer and editor. --Wikipedia
The Life of Robert Burns (1828)
Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott (1836-38)

Nikolai LOBACHEVSKY (1793-1856) Etext: The Online Books Page | The McMaster Collection | University of Michigan Historical Math Collection | Internet Archive Reference: Non-Euclidean Geometry
Note: a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry --Wikipedia
Geometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels (1840) Etext: The Online Books Page

John CLARE (1793-1864) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation Criticism: Jonathan Heawood review
Note: an English poet, the son of a farm labourer, who came to be known for his celebratory representations of the English countryside and his lamentation of its disruption. --Wikipedia
Comment: Best 'peasant' poet in English, the last to remember the English coutryside unenclosed... . --Raphael and McLeish
Selected Poems (1990)

Percy Bysshe SHELLEY (1792-1822) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Adam Kirsch review
Note: one of the major English Romantic poets and is regarded by critics as among the finest lyric poets in the English language --Wikipedia
Comment: For the beauty of the poems. --John Williams Collins III
Comment: a man infinitely too weak for that solitary scaling of the Alps which he undertook in spite of all the world. --Thomas Carlyle
One star: Queen Mab (1813)
One star: The Revolt of Islam (1817)
One star: Ozymandias (1818)
One star: Peter Bell the Third (1819; published 1839)
One star: Prometheus Unbound (1820)
One star: To a Skylark (1820)
Ode to the West Wind (1820)
One star: Adonais (1821)
One star: Hellas (1822)
One star: A Defence of Poetry (1822; published 1840)
Comment: Quivers with indignation at the slights done to poetry; speculative about imagination in general as well as about poetry; grand but not grandiose paean to the whole poetic enterprise. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: One Word is Too Often Profaned (Posthumous Poems, 1824)

Johann Peter ECKERMANN (1792-1854) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: ...German poet and author --Wikipedia
Conversations with Goethe (1836, 1848)
Comment: The outstanding feature of this book is that the compilation furnishes a unique record of the working of Goethe's mature mind, for he was seventy-three when the Conversations begin and eighty-two when they end. --J. A. Hammerton

John HERSCHEL (1792-1871) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English mathematician, astronomer, chemist, and experimental photographer/inventor, who in some years also did valuable botanical work. --Wikipedia
Outlines of Astronomy (1849)
Comment: his work at Fieldhausen marked the beginning of southern sidereal astronomy. --J. A. Hammerton

Sergey AKSAKOV (1791-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a 19th-century Russian literary figure remembered for his semi-autobiographical tales of family life --Wikipedia
A Family Chronicle (Semeynaya khronika, 1856)

Giuseppe Gioacchino BELLI (1791-1863) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Italian poet, famous for his sonnets in Romanesco, the dialect of Rome. --Wikipedia
One star: The Roman Sonnets (1886-1889)
Comment: The dilemma of the dialect poet is displayed by the Roman Belli, many of whose two thousand sonnets would be widely celebrated had they been written in standard Italian. --Philip Ward

Michael FARADAY (1791-1867) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. --Wikipedia
One star: Experimental Researches in Electricity (three volumes, 1839, 1844, 1855)
The Chemical History of a Candle (1861)
Comment: The chemical history of a candle took Faraday and his audience--and still takes the modern reader--through the entire gamut of the chemical and physical sciences of his day... . --Raphael and McLeish

Franz GRILLPARZER (1791-1872) Etext: The Online Books Page | Infomotions
Note: an Austrian writer who is chiefly known for his dramas. --Wikipedia
Medea (1820)
Comment: the last play in Grillparzer's Golden Fleece trilogy: it is less about the daughter of the King of Colchis than about the fleece itself, which symbolizes guilt, victory, and revenge, ambition and wilfulness. --Philip Ward

Alphonse de LAMARTINE (1790-1869) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference:
Note: a French writer, poet and politician who was instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic. --Wikipedia
Meditations poetiques (1820)
Nouvelles Meditations (1823)

Comment: 1789: A Requiem

James Fenimore COOPER (1789-1851) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Mary Elizabeth Phillips biography Criticism: Udo Nattermann essay
Note: a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. His historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature. --Wikipedia
The Deerslayer (1841)
Comment: A romantic and tragic study of manly character. --Hugh Heclo

Lord BYRON (1788-1824) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: see Thomas Moore Life | Marilee Mongello fan site Criticism: post
Note: an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. ... He travelled to fight against the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence, for which Greeks revere him as a national hero. --Wikipedia
Comment: Lord Byron is only great as a poet; as soon as he reflects he is a child. --Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
One star: Inscription on the Monument of a New Foundland Dog (1808)
One star: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812)
One star: The Destruction of Sennacherib (1815)
One star: She Walks in Beauty (1815)
One star: The Prisoner of Chillon (1816)
One star: Beppo (1816)
One star: The Dream (1816)
One star: Manfred (1817)
Two stars: Don Juan (1819-24)
Comment: It is the greatest comic epic in English, greater even than Tristram Shandy, the only other work remotely like it. --Paul Dean
Comment: Byron, the most brillian figure of his age, was sometimes a very good poet, too. Don Juan is his wittiest, most sustained poem, surprisingly beautiful... . --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Sardanapalus (1821)
One star: Stanzas Written on the Road between Florence and Pisa (1821)
Letters and Journals (1898)

Joseph Freiherr von EICHENDORFF (1788-1857) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German poet and novelist of the later German romantic school. --Wikipedia
Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing (R. Taylor translation 1968; Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts, 1826)
Comment: shows a world of perfect harmony in which men may uproot a vegetable garden in favour of flowers, and live light-heartedly despite being sent away from home for idling. Sentimentality is avoided by the telling use of irony by the internal narrator and of the author himself. --Philip Ward

Arthur SCHOPENHAUER (1788-1860) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. --Wikipedia
Comment: It is hard to take Schopenhauer at his ascetic word when we know what splendid dinners he had put on, day after day, at the Hotel Schwan in Frankfort. --Philip Rieff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud (1966) p. 17
On the Fourfold Root of the Principal of Sufficient Reason (Uber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde, 1813, revised 1847)
One star: The World as Will and Idea (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, 1818/1819)
Comment: Rare combination of Kant and Buddha underlies Schopenhauer's thought. --Raphael and McLeish
Parega und Paralipomena (1851; translated by E. F. J. Payne, 1974, 2 Volumes)
Essays (1897)
Studies in Pessimism Etext: Sterf [pdf]
The Art of Controversy Etext: Sterf [pdf]
The Art of Being Right (Eristische Dialektik: Die Kunst, Recht zu Behalten, 1831) Criticism: George Walden review

One star: United States CONSTITUTION (1787) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Constitutional Sources Project | Interpreting Our Written Constititution | SCOTUSblog | The Founders' Constitution | Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics Criticism: Michael Novak essay | John P. Kaminski review | Hendrik Hertzberg review | Hadley Arkes review | Steven D. Smith essay | Steven D. Smith review | Hadley Arkes essay | Michael M. Uhlmann essay | Joseph Baldacchino review | Gregory S. Ahern review | Steven D. Smith essay | C. H. Hoebeke essay | Michael M. Uhlmann essay | David Wagner essay | Kenneth R. Craycraft, Jr., essay | Intercollegiate Review | see Orestes Brownson, American Republic | see James Madison, et al., Federalist Papers
Note: the supreme law of the United States of America. --Wikipedia
Comment: The Articles of Confederation established a league of thirteen sovereign states, deriving its power from the states. The Constitution, however, established a new sovereign government, deriving its power directly from the people. --Peter Wolff
United States BILL OF RIGHTS (1791) Etext: Project Gutenberg Humor: The Onion | The Onion
Note: the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. --Wikipedia

Francois GUIZOT (1787-1874) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French historian, orator, and statesman. Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848 --Wikipedia
General History of Civilization in Europe (Histoire de la civilisation en Europe, 1828)
Comment: ...it showed me that history can be a form of philosophy and literature. --Richard Pipes
History of Civilization in France (Histoire de la civilisation en France, 4 vols., 1830)

Alessandro MANZONI (1785-1873) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Italian poet and novelist. --Wikipedia
Comment: In Manzoni's house in Milan, in the room where he died in 1873, his rosary is pinned to the pillow of his deathbed. --Ralph McInerney
One star: The Betrothed (I Promessi Sposi, 1827)
Note: had immense patriotic appeal for Italians of the nationalistic Risorgimento period --Encyclopaedia Britannica
On the Historical Novel (Del romanzo storico, 1850)

Thomas Love PEACOCK (1785-1866) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English novelist, poet, and official of the East India Company. ... Peacock wrote satirical novels, each with the same basic setting — characters at a table discussing and criticising the philosophical opinions of the day. --Wikipedia
One star: Nightmare Abbey (1818)
Comment: a piquant, uncensorious skit on Byron, Coleridge, and the gloomy Romantic movement, from a detached 'classical' standpoint. --Raphael and McLeish
Crotchet Castle (1831)
Comment: ...The well-to-do Mr. Crotchet wishes to marry his children into the nobility, and for his callous son he has his eye on the daughter of an impoverished knight. As it happens, this Lady Clarinda has recently thrown over a Captain Fitzchrome as being too poor to provide anything but 'love in a cottage'. --Michael Dirda
One star: Gryll Grange (1861)

Brothers GRIMM
Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) Etext: The Online Books Page and
Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: ...German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore. --Wikipedia
One star: Fairy Tales (Kinder- und Hausmarchen, 1812) Criticism: Philip Zaleski review
Comment: The brothers Grimm were a well-matched pair; from their two heads came the right balance to make sense of something in German character that takes in 'The Bremen Town Musicians', 'The Twelve Dancing Princesses' and the glorious ghastly death of 'Rumpelstiltskin'. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: Surprisingly, perhaps, their stories don't always end happily, but they do end justly. --Michael Dirda
- (Maria Tatar annotated translation, 2004) Criticism: Neil Gaiman review

Thomas DE QUINCEY (1785-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English essayist, best known for his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821). --Wikipedia
One star: Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821)
Comment: Rambling perceptive reminiscences: the Opium Eater is a master of digression and sly innuendo. --Raphael and McLeish

Leigh HUNT (1784-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Michael Glover review
Note: an English critic, essayist, poet and writer. --Wikipedia
Abou Ben Adhem (The Book of Gems 1838)
Autobiography (1850)

STENDHAL (1783-1842) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: Marie-Henri Beyle, better known by his pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century French writer. Known for his acute analysis of his characters' psychology, he is considered one of the earliest and foremost practitioners of realism --Wikipedia
One star: On Love (De L'Amour, 1822)
Three stars: The Red and the Black (Le Rouge et le Noir, 1830) Criticism: Kenneth Rexroth essay
Comment: Julien's course, from the moment we meet him, is determined by ideas. ... He is programmed, like a just-invented computer, by an idea of duty to himself. --Mary McCarthy
Comment: Today, poor people have innumerable career options: personal training, consulting, cabaret. If Stendhal were writing today, what color would he use to symbolize a career as a private equity fund manager? --Joe Queenan
Two stars: The Charterhouse of Parma (La Chartreuse de Parma, 1839)
Comment: was dashed off by Stendhal in fifty-two days, at the end of 1838; and the circumstances of its composition (or should I say performance?) show: in its penchant for summary, in its likeness to a single whoosh of sustained exhalation, in its tour-de-force bravura quality, but also in its repetitions and hasty summing-up. --Phillip Lopate
Comment: has a more splendid hero in Fabrizio del Dongo and though less readable is luminous with political fireworks and contains a puncturingly 'modern' passage describing the Battle of Waterloo. --Raphael and McLeish
- (Richard Howard translation, 1999) Criticism: Martin Greenberg review | Daniel Mendelsohn review

Washington IRVING (1783-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an American author, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle", both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. --Wikipedia
The Sketch Book by Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (1819-1820)
The Life of Oliver Goldsmith (1840; revised 1849)

John C. CALHOUN (1782-1850) Etext: The Online Books Page | Project Gutenberg Criticism: David Levine caricature
Note: a leading American politician and political theorist during the first half of the 19th century. ... He is best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as something positive, his distrust of majoritarianism, and for pointing the South toward secession from the Union --Wikipedia
Comment: emphatically denies that man is either a simple prepolitical solitary or a political being. He declares instead that man is a social being, and his sociality takes precedence over political life. --Brendan Dunn
Speech on the Reception of Abolitionist Petitions (February 6, 1837)
Disquisition on Government (1849)
Comment: Calhoun's sophisticated theory of the 'concurrent majority' as the American republic's alternative to both despotism and anarchy holds much that might appeal, if they understood it, to both liberal and conservative parties today. --First Things
Comment: his basic principle itself: that every major interest in the country, whether regional, economic, or religious, is to possess a veto power on political decisions directly affecting it, the principle that Calhoun called, rather obscurely, 'the rule of the concurrent majority', has become the organizing principle of American politics. --Peter F. Drucker

Articles of Confederation (1781) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics
Note: formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. --Wikipedia

Charles MATURIN (1780-1824) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Irish Protestant clergyman (ordained by the Church of Ireland) and a writer of gothic plays and novels. --Wikipedia
Melmoth the Wanderer (1820)

Carl von CLAUSEWITZ (1780-1831) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German soldier and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war. --Wikipedia
One star: On War (Vom Kriege, 1832-34) Criticism: Willis G. Regier essay | Janeen Klinger essay | Bruce Fleming essay | Victor M. Rosello essay | John E. Shephard, Jr. essay | Eric Alterman essay

Thomas MOORE (1779-1852) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of The Minstrel Boy and The Last Rose of Summer. --Wikipedia
Comment: [O]ver-intellectual modern-day critics should take a lesson from his capacity to write intelligently about emotion. --The Economist, January 27th 2001, p. 85
The Life, Letters and Journals of Lord Byron (1830)
Selected Poems (1910-1914) Etext: Harvard Classics

John GALT (1779-1839) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Scottish novelist, entrepreneur, and political and social commentator. Because he was the first novelist to deal with issues of the Industrial Revolution, he has been called the first political novelist in the English language. --Wikipedia
The Entail (1823)

William HAZLITT (1778-1830) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: David Bromwich review | Joseph Epstein review
Note: an English writer, remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, as the greatest art critic of his age, and as a drama critic, social commentator, and philosopher --Wikipedia
Lectures on the English Poets (1818)

Humphry DAVY (1778-1829) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English chemist and inventor. He is probably best remembered today for his discoveries of several alkali and alkaline earth metals, as well as contributions to the discoveries of the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine --Wikipedia
Elements of Chemical Philosophy (1812)
Comment: In 1810 he delivered two courses of lectures in Dublin, one, on the Elements of Chemical Philosophy, being published in 1812. --J. A. Hammerton

Ugo FOSCOLO (Niccolo Foscolo 1778-1827) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an Italian writer, revolutionary and poet. --Wikipedia
Odes (A Napoleone Bonaparte liberatore, 1799; A Luigia Pallavicini caduta da cavallo, 1803)
Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis (Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis, 1802)
On Sepulchres (Dei sepolcri, 1806)
The Graces (Le grazie, carme; unfinished)

Heinrich von KLEIST (1777-1811) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German poet, dramatist, novelist and short story writer. --Wikipedia
Amphitryon (1807)
The Broken Jug (Der zerbrochne Krug, 1808)
One star: Penthesilea (1808)
Comment: a clash between the heroine as wholly feminine and Achilles the hero as wholly masculine. --Philip Ward
A Fragment of The Tragedy of Robert Guiscard, Duke of the Normans (Robert Guiskard, Herzog der Normanner, 1808)
Erzanlungen (1810-1811)
Prince Frederick of Homburg (Prinz Friedrich von Homburg oder die Schlacht bei Fehrbellin, 1821)
Selected Prose (Peter Wortsman translation 2009)
Note: Contents: Fragments; The Earthquake in Chile; The Betrothal in Santo Domingo; Saint Cecilia, or the Power of Music; The Beggar Woman of Locarno; The Marquise of O...; Michael Kohlhaas; On the Gradual Formulation of Thoughts While Speaking; On the Theater of Marionettes; --Amazon

Thomas CAMPBELL (1777-1844) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Scottish poet --Wikipedia
The Pleasures of Hope (1799)
Selected Poems (1909–14) Etext: Harvard Classics

Henry HALLAM (1777-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English historian. ... Hallam, like Macaulay, ultimately referred political questions to the standard of Whig constitutionalism. --Wikipedia
Europe in the Middle Ages (1818)
Introduction to the Literature of Europe (1837-39)

One star: United States DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. --Wikipedia
Comment: largely the work of Thomas Jefferson --Peter Wolff
Comment: The fundamental doctrine of the right of revolution, or at least of secession from a tyrranical overlord, is based on Jefferson's (correct) reading of Locke's Essay on Civil Government. The doctrine, in a nutshell, holds that a people who are now tyrranized by a government that may have once been legitimate have every right to rebel, or at least secede, in order to protect themselves. --Charles Van Doren
Comment: the first public diplomacy document of the United States. Everything done in U.S. public diplomacy is, or should be, an elaboration of this pronouncement. --Robert B. Reilly

E. T. A. HOFFMANN (1776-1822) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German Romantic author of fantasy and horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann --Wikipedia
'The Golden Pot' ('Der goldne Topf' in Fantasiestücke in Callots Manier, 1814)
Comment: deliberately plays with the suspicion that we may inhabit a domain of mere appearance while the true realm of the spirit is ignored or dismissed as fanciful. --Michael Dirda
One star: The Devil's Elixir (Die Elixire des Teufels 1814)
Comment: the protagonist seems to exchange personalities with a dead man. Does he? How much is real, how much imagined? --Michael Dirda
'The Sandman' ('Der Sandmann' in Nachtstucke, 1817)
Comment: Freud uses 'The Sandman' as the test case in his celebrated essay 'The Uncanny', showing that a particular form of dread is created when the familiar suddenly appears strange (he later links this reaction to the return of a repressed childhood trauma). --Michael Dirda
One star: The Serapion Brethren (Die Serapionsbruder 1819)
Comment: The best of his supernatural stories. Urbane, Gallic Poe-try. --Raphael and McLeish
Comment: the young hero of 'The Mines of Falun' finds himself increasingly in thrall to the underground and its irresistable queen. --Michael Dirda
Comment: Clockwork figures also fascinated Hoffmann, and his essayistic tale 'Automata' includes a long conversation about the uneasiness people feel at any parroting of human forms. --Michael Dirda

Jane AUSTEN (1775-1817) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: The Republic of Pemberly fan site Criticism: post
Note: an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. --Wikipedia
Three stars: Pride and Prejudice (1813)
Comment: It is the most perfectly written book in the English language that I know and Elizabeth Bennet the most perfect woman against whom all others pale. --Colin McArdle
Mansfield Park (1814)
Three stars: Emma (1815)
One star: Persuasion (1818)
Lady Susan (1871)
Comment: Written just before the domestic novel became the elevating choice of polite readers and writers, the novel has a social-climbing, gold-digging villainess as her main character. --Emily Allen
Three prayers Etext: Linore Rose Burkard

Charles LAMB (1775-1834) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation
Note: an English writer and essayist, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the children's book Tales from Shakespeare --Wikipedia
One star: Essays of Elia (1823)
The Last Essays of Elia (1833)

Walter Savage LANDOR (1775-1864) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poetry Foundation | English Verse | Black Cat Poems
Note: an English writer and poet. His best known works were the prose Imaginary Conversations, and the poem Rose Aylmer --Wikipedia
One star: Imaginary Conversations (1824-29)
Selected Poems and Prose (1981)

Robert SOUTHEY (1774-1843) Etext: The Online Books Page | Poem Hunter | Sonnet Central Criticism: David Bromwich review
Note: an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets" --Wikipedia
The Life of Nelson (1813)

NOVALIS (1772-1801) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg ... a poet, author, and philosopher of early German Romanticism. --Wikipedia
Aphorisms (1798)
Hymns to the Night (Hymnen an die Nacht, 1800)

David RICARDO (1772-1823) Etext: The Online Books Page | The Library of Economics and Liberty Criticism: post
Note: a British political economist. He was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and John Stuart Mill. --Wikipedia
The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817)

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich SCHLEGEL (1772-1829) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and indologist. ... one of the main figures of the Jena romantics. --Wikipedia
Aphorisms (1798)
Philosophical Fragments (1798-1800)

Samuel Taylor COLERIDGE (1772-1834) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Kenneth Rexroth essay | Barbara Everett review essay
Note: an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. --Wikipedia
Comment: Coleridge the poet, critic, philosopher and theologian taught me that words are 'living powers' and that our duty is 'self-superintendence'--the attaining of distinctness of consciousness. --Richard R. Niebuhr
Two stars: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798)
Comment: ... He has a quality of mystery attained by no one of his contemporaries. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Writings on Shakespeare (1811-1812)
One star: Christabel (1816)
Two stars: Kubla Khan (1816)
Comment: He had set down a fragment of fewer than three hundred lines when he was interrupted by 'a person from Porlock' and his train of thought was never reconstructed. --Philip Ward
One star: Biographia Literaria (1817)
Comment: probably the best criticism of a friend and collaborator by his friend: Coleridge on Wordsworth. Ambitious philosophical criticism shows characteristic depth and range of Coleridge's mind. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Aids to Reflection (1825)
One star: Table Talk and Omniana (1835)

Walter SCOTT (1771-1832) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: see John Gibons Lockhart Life Criticism: post
Note: a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, and poet, popular throughout much of the world in the 19th century. --Wikipedia
Comment: Literary fashion is a mysterious thing. Why is it that Sir Walter Scott, for example, whom generations of readers found absolutely spellbinding, is unread and, for many of us, unreadable today? --Roger Kimball
The Lady of the Lake (1810)
One star: Waverly; or, 'Tis Sixty Years Since (1814)
Old Mortality (1816)
Ivanhoe (1820)
One star: Heart of Midlothian (1818)
Redgauntlet (1824)
Selected Poems (1910-1914) Etext: Harvard Classics

Dorothy WORDSWORTH (1771-1855) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an English author, poet and diarist. She was the sister of the Romantic poet William Wordsworth --Wikipedia
The Grasmere Journal (1897)
Comment: Vivid, unaffected account of [William] Wordsworth's friendship with Coleridge and his daily life in the Lake District during one of his most creative periods. --Raphael and McLeish

Robert OWEN (1771-1858) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. --Wikipedia
Comment: A manufacturer and practical reformer, he was not content to conceive--or adopt--the idea of small self-sufficing communities, producing and consuming their means of livelihood according to communist principles in the word's boldest acceptance. He actually went about realizing it. --Joseph Schumpeter
A New of Society, or, Essays on the Formation of the Human Character (1813)

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich HEGEL (1770-1831) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Gabriel R. Ricci essay [pdf] | Roger Kimball review | Jacques Derrida essay | post
Note: a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. --Wikipedia
Comment: Hegel remarks somewhere that all great, world-historical facts and personages occur, as it were, twice. He has forgotten to add: the first time as tragedy, the second as farce. --Karl Mark, 'The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte' (1852)
Comment: what makes America unique, especially in contrast to Europe, is its resistance to the philosophy of Hegel with its concept of a unifying world spirit. --Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Blind Faiths, review of 'The Suicide of Reason: Radical Islams' Threat to the Enlightenment', by Lee Harris, The New York Times Book Review, January 6, 2007, p. 15
The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phanomenologie des Geistes, 1807)
Comment: No one could ever inveigle / Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel / Into offering the slightest apology / for his Phenomenology. --W. H. Auden
Comment: An attempt to put everything together before anything was clear, revolutionary and romantic, but also a classical integration. --Duncan Kennedy
Comment: classic account of the individual's unavoidable dependence on others for recognition. --Clare Dalton
The Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik, 1812-1816)
Comment: This is Spinosism in its most superficial form. --Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Collected Works 12, Marginalia II, 993
Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences (Enzyklopadie der philosophischen Wissenschaften, 1817; 2nd ed. 1827; 3rd ed. 1830)
One star: The Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, 1821)
Comment: If there were only subjective freedom, then state and freedom would be opposed, since the state limits the extent to which an individual can do as he pleases. But since there is objective freedom, the freedom that comes from doing one's duty, the state serves freedom. A subject's duties and rights are determined for him by the state. Hence, in the state, and only in the state, can man be free. --Peter Wolff, The Development of Political Theory and Government (1959), p. 202
Comment: it is one of his basic philosophical assumptions that 'the real is the ideal'--that thought is the most basic and concrete thing there is in the world. Attention to the manifold materials of experience contributes nothing but confusion when we are looking for principles. It is thought alone which can get at the essence of things. --Peter Wolff, Philosophy of Law and Jurisprudence (1961), p. 208
Comment: Hegel identifies the ethical with the universal and concrete--both at once. He acknowledges the partial validity of the sense of duty and the important factor of individual conscience in moral matters, but, unlike Kant, he refuses to accept what he calls mere 'morality' as the central aspect of ethics. For Hegel, ethics in its perfection is social, not individual. --Seymour Cain, Ethics: The Study of Moral Values (1962), p. 242
Comment: Whether or not we accept the dialectical method and all that is implied in it, Hegel's distinction between the three spheres of political life, family, civil society, and state, and his account of the rights and duties which arise within each one, carries great conviction. --Roger Scruton, Conservative Texts, p. 130
Comment: Hegel contrasts the idea of a civil society, where people cooperate to further their interests, with the idea of a political community as an ethical life that enlarges the self-knowledge of the participants. --Michael J. Sandel
Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (Vorlesungen uber die Philosophie der Religion, 1832)
Lectures on Aesthetics (Vorlesungen uber die Asthetik, 1835)
One star: Lectures on the Philosophy of History (Vorlesungen uber die Philosophie der Weltgeschichte, 1837)
Comment: To his mind, America was deficient because it lacked a state church, a European-style ministry of culture, and receptivity to the rationalized Protestantism that he sought to advance. --Thomas Albert Howard, 'America in the European Mind', First Things, November 2006, p. 13

Friedrich HOLDERLIN (1770-1843) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a major German lyric poet, commonly associated with the artistic movement known as Romanticism. Hölderlin was also an important thinker in the development of German Idealism --Wikipedia
One star: Poems and Fragments (1994) Criticism: Michael Hofmann review

William WORDSWORTH (1770-1850) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 joint publication Lyrical Ballads. --Wikipedia
Comment: Wordsworth, like Freud,...knew that the child's way of apprehension was but a stage which, in the course of nature, would give way to another. --Lionel Trilling
Expostulation and Reply (in Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems, 1798)
The Tables Turned (in Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems, 1798)
We Are Seven (in Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems, 1798)
Tintern Abbey (in Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems, 1798)
Influence of Natural Objects (1799)
Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1800)
A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal (in Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems, 1800)
I Traveled Among Unknown Men (in Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems, 1800)
She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways (in Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems, 1800)
To the Small Celandine (1802)
Westminster Bridge (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
It is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
London 1802 (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Nuns Fret Not at Their Convent's Narrow Room (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
The World Is Too Much With Us (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
The Solitary Reaper (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Ode to Duty (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollection of Early Childhood (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Song at the Feast of Brougham Castle (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Thought of a Briton on the Subjugation of Switzerland (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
To Sleep (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Personal Talk (in Poems, in Two Volumes, 1807)
Three stars: The Excursion (1814)
Ecclesiastical Sonnets (1822)
Scorn Not the Sonnet (1827)
The Borderers (1842)
The Simplon Pass (1845)
One star: The Prelude (1850)

Georges CUVIER (1769-1832) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French naturalist and zoologist. ... was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology --Wikipedia
Discourse on the upheavals of the surface of the globe (Discours sur les revolutions de la surface du globe, 1825)

Alexander von HUMBOLDT (1769-1859) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer ... . Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. --Wikipedia
One star: Cosmos (Kosmos, 1845-47; 1850-58; 1862)

Encyclopaedia BRITANNICA Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Britannica Blog
Note: a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. ... It is regarded as one of the most scholarly of English-language encyclopaedias. --Wikipedia
(1st Ed. 1768)
(11th Ed. 1910-11) Etext: Online Encyclopedia
Comment: The infinite riches of the world, presented with elegance, confidence, and economy. --Mark Helprin
Comment: When T. S. Eliot wrote 'Soul curled upon the window seat reading the Encyclopaedia Britannica' he was certainly thinking of the eleventh edition. --Kenneth Clark
Note: The 12th Edition and 13th Edition each consist of the 11th Edition and a three volume supplement. --ed.
(15th Ed. 1975) Etext: Encyclopaedia Britannica | Kenneth Rexroth essay
Comment: Until around 1950, it was a great reference work, written by experts, edited by people who cared about clarity of expression. Then academics like Mortimer Adler got into the act. They turned it from a work one could read with enjoyment into a pseudo-Aristotelian reader-proof object of veneration that people might acquire to obtain a patina of culture but no longer read. --The New Criterion

Joseph FOURIER (1768-1830) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: David Wogan post | Raymond T. Pierrehumbert essay
Note: a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. ... Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect. --Wikipedia
Analytical Theory of Heat (Theorie analytique de la chaleur, 1822)

Francois-Rene de CHATEAUBRIAND (1768-1848) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature. --Wikipedia
Atala (1801)
Rene (1802)
The Genius of Christianity (Genie du christianisme, 1802)
One star: Memoirs from Beyond the Grave (Memoires d'Outre-Tombe, 1848–50)
Comment: perhaps the most admirable study of Romanticism that has ever been written. --J. A. Hammerton

Benjamin CONSTANT (1767-1830) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Swiss-born French politician, writer on politics and religion. ... He was a fervent liberal of the early 19th century --Wikipedia
Adolphe (1816)
The Red Notebook (Le Cahier rouge, 1907)

Maria EDGEWORTH (1767-1849) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a prolific Irish writer of adults' and children's literature. She was one of the first realist writers in children's literature --Wikipedia
Castle Rackrent (1800)

Thomas Robert MALTHUS (1766-1834) Etext: The Online Books Page Study: Andrew Roberts outline Criticism: post
Note: an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. --Wikipedia
Two stars: An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
Comment: asserts that the human race naturally breeds too fast for its food supply. The consequence--anounced with the sangfroid common then among philosophical men of the upper class--is that the poor are miserable and will always remain so. --D. T. Max
Comment: Malthus concluded that, if human beings were to enjoy the greatest possible happiness, they should not assume family obligations unless they could afford them. Those without adequate means to support a family should remain celibate. --Robert B. Downs

John DALTON (1766-1844) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness --Wikipedia
One star: A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808-27)

Xavier de MAISTRE (1763-1852) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: lived largely as a military man, but is known as a French writer. The younger brother of noted philosopher and counter-revolutionary Joseph de Maistre --Wikipedia
A Voyage Around My Room (Voyage autour de ma chambre, 1794) Criticism: Nicholas Lezard review
Comment: Confined to his quarters for forty-two days as punishment for dueling, the French soldier Xavier de Maistre decided to undertake a journey around his room. --Michael Dirda
A Nocturnal Expedition Around My Room (Expedition Nocturne Autour de ma Chambre, 1825)
Comment: its sequel... --Michael Dirda

JEAN PAUL (1763-1825) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories. --Wikipedia
Autobiography (1825)
Comment: Richter's Autobiography--left unfinished at his death--is a masterpiece of its kind, and very characteristic of the man, charged with all his fertile imagination, his love of nature and of children and his distinctive humour. --J. A. Hammerton

Johann Gottlieb FICHTE (1762-1814) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a German philosopher. He was one of the founding figures of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. --Wikipedia
Parenthetically, neither Marx nor Hegel ever used the 'thesis, antithesis, synthesis' formulation. They owe the phrase to Fichte. --Robert L. Heilbroner
Comment: Gentlemen! Look at the washbasket! Let your thoughts be the washbasket! Have you thought the washbasket? Now then, gentlemen, let your thought be on that that thought the washbasket! --Penelope Fitzgerald
The Vocation of Man (1800)
Address to the German Nation (1807-08)
Comment: It was Napolean's humiliation of the Germans, particularly the Prussians, which drove Fichte and the German intellectuals to call on the German masses to unite into a mighty nation which would dominate Europe. --Eric Hoffer

William COBBETT (1762-1835) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: an English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist ... . He wrote many polemics, on subjects from political reform to religion, but is best known for his book from 1830, Rural Rides, which is still in print today. --Wikipedia
Rural Rides (1830)

Robert BURNS (1759-1796) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Burns Country | see John Gibons Lockhart Life
Note: a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland --Wikipedia
One star: Poems (1759-96)
Comment: [On Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (1786)] Those who know only Burns's often whimsical, sentimental popular poems will be surprised at the grandeur and reflectiveness of his other work... . --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Songs (1903)
Comment: Burns took pains to collect traditional songs of the Lowlands and adapted many with his own genius for evoking the field, the wood, and the human and animal creatures around him. --Philip Ward

Mary WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797) Etext: The Online Books Page | Online Library of Liberty Criticism: Susan Eilenberg review
Note: an eighteenth-century English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. --Wikipedia
Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
Comment: The author based her crusade to win freedom and self-respect for women on the principle that they would thereby become more capable wives and mothers. --Robert B. Downs
An Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution; and the Effect It Has produced in Europe (1794)
Comment: In his biography of America's second president, David McCullough tells us that Adams wrote no fewer than 12,000 words inside the covers of Mary Woolstonecraft's French Revolution (mostly disagreeing with the author). --Steve Leveen

Friedrich SCHILLER (1759-1805) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Roger Kimball review
Note: a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. --Wikipedia
The Robbers (Die Räuber, 1782)
One star: Don Carlos (Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien: ein dramatisches Gedicht, 1787)
Comment: ...Don Carlos, King Philip II of Spain, and the Marquis of Posa in turn stir the imagination as the principal protagonist. --Philip Ward
On the Naive and Sentimental in Literature (Uber Naive und Sentimentalische Dichtung, 1795)
One star: Mary Stuart (Maria Stuart, 1800)
Comment: showing Elizabeth I's confrontation with the Catholic Mary Stuart (which never in historical truth took place) --Philip Ward
The Death of Wallenstein (from Wallenstein, 1800)
William Tell (Wilhelm Tell, 1804)

Noah WEBSTER (1758-1843) Etext: The Online Books Page | Merriam-Webster
Note: a lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. ... His name became synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States --Wikipedia
An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828)
Note: The name Webster's Dictionary may refer to any of the line of dictionaries first developed by Noah Webster in the early 19th century, and also to numerous unrelated dictionaries that added Webster's name just to share his prestige. --Wikipedia

William BLAKE (1757-1827) Etext: The Online Books Page | Blake Digital Text Project Reference: Morris Eaves et al. fan site Criticism: post
Note: an English poet, painter and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. --Wikipedia
Comment: What his genius required, and what it sadly lacked, was a framework of accepted and traditional ideas which would have prevented him from indulging in a philosophy of his own. --T. S. Eliot
One star: Poetical Sketches (1783)
Mock On, Mock On, Voltaire, Rousseau (from Notebook, aka The Rossetti Manuscript or MS. Book c. 1793-1811)
Gnomic Verses (from Notebook or Rossetti Manuscript c. 1787-1811)
One star: All Religions Are One (c. 1788)
Two stars: Songs of Innocence (1789)
Comment: In his lyric poems and visionary drawings, and in his epigrams, Blake is the unlikeliest of all the products of late-18th-century London; infinitely complex, and intellectually more powerful, than at first he appears; from several points of view the greatest English poet after Shakespeare. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790-1793)
Two stars: Songs of Experience (1794)
One star: There Is No Natural Religion (1794-1795)
Auguries of Innocence (1803)
One star: Milton (1808)
One star: Annotations to Discourses by Sir Joshua Reynolds (1808)
A Vision of the Last Judgment (Notes from Descriptive Catalogue, 2nd Ed. 1809)
One star: The Everlasting Gospel (1818)

William GODWIN (1756-1836) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Criticism: post
Note: an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism, and the first modern proponent of anarchism. --Wikipedia
An Inquiry Concering the Principles of Political Justice (1793)

Alexander HAMILTON (1755 or 1757-1804) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Founding Father of the United States, chief of staff to General Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first American political party. --Wikipedia
The Continentalist (1781-1782)
Report on Manufactures (December 5, 1791)
See collaboration with James Madison et al.

George CRABBE (1754-1832) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: an English poet, surgeon, and clergyman. He is best known for his early use of the realistic narrative form and his descriptions of middle and working-class life and people. --Wikipedia
One star: The Parish Register (Poems, 1807)

Joseph de MAISTRE (1753-1821) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Isaiah Berlin essay
Note: a Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat. He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately following the French Revolution. --Wikipedia
The Pope (Aeneas McD. Dawson translation 1975, Du Pape 1819)

Frances BURNEY (1752-1840) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: also known as Fanny Burney and, after her marriage, as Madame d’Arblay, was an English novelist, diarist and playwright. --Wikipedia
Evelina (1778)
The Diary and Letters of Mme. D'Arblay (1904)

James MADISON (1751-1826) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Andy G. Olree article | post
Note: an American statesman, political theorist and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights. --Wikipedia
Letter to Thomas Jefferson (October 24, 1787)
Three stars: Federalist Papers (1787-1788, with Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, 1745–1829, as "Publius") Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Liberty Library Criticism: post
Note: a series of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... The series' correct title is The Federalist; the title The Federalist Papers did not emerge until the twentieth century. --Wikipedia
Comment: They were articles written for several New York newspapers, in order to urge the people of the state of New York to ratify the Constitution. --Peter Wolff
Comment: Papers rationalizing and justifying the U.S. Constitution of 1787 (to influence debates over ratification), these constitute collectively a profound assessment of the nature, uses, needs for, dangers in, correctives to--and, by implication, ineradicable dilemmas of--human governance in secular societies legitimized by popular sovereignty. --Richard E. Neustadt
Comment: A brilliant subtle argument for a non-Aristotelian regime. --James Q. Wilson
Property (March 29, 1792)
Note: Papers 14:266-68 --ed.

Richard Brinsley SHERIDAN (1751-1816) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Brooke Allen review
Note: an Irish playwright and poet and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. --Wikipedia
One star: The Rivals (1775)
One star: The School for Scandal (1777)
Comment: One of the most enduring comedies in English: funny dialogue, in graceful 18th-century prose; razor characterizations; fast action. --Raphael and McLeish

/\ Later 18th Century

\/ 1701-1750 | 1801-1825 /\

Revised June 22, 2014.