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Read Me What to read, 300 B.C.-A.D. 300

\/ through 301 B.C. | A.D. 301-1100 /\

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Comment: Of the making of many books there is no end --Ecclesiastes 12:12

\/ A.D. 3rd Century

Avesta (3rd or 4th Century) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives
Note: the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism --Wikipedia | containing its cosmogony, law, and liturgy, the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra). The extant Avesta is all that remains of a much larger body of scripture, apparently Zoroaster’s transformation of a very ancient tradition. --Encyclopaedia Britannica
Comment: Briefly, Zoroastrianism teaches that the world of the good principle, Ahura Mazda, was invaded by the evil principle, Angra Mainyu, and the world has since been the scene of perennial conflict between the two, which can be resolved only when at the appointed time a son of the lawgiver, named Saoshyant, will appear. He will destroy Angra Mainyu, the dead will be resurrected, and everlasting happiness will be the lot of mankind. --Philip Ward

BHASA (c. 275-c. 335) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Moonstruck Drama Bookstore | World History Online
Note: one of the earliest and most celebrated Indian playwrights in Sanskrit. --Wikipedia
The Dream of Vasavadatta (Svapnavasavadattam)
Comment: a love story taken from an incident in the Ramayana epic. --Philip Ward

Diogenes LAERTIUS (c. 225-275) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a biographer of the Greek philosophers. --Wikipedia
Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers

One star: Songs of the South or Songs of Chu or Verses of Chu (Chu Ci) [Ch'u Tz'u]
Note: from the Warring States period (ended 221 BC), though about half of the poems seem to have been composed several centuries later, during the Han Dynasty. [206 B.C.–A.D. 220] --Wikipedia
Comment: Most of the Ch'u Tz'u poems are written in the song style, so-called because it was originally used only in songs; or in the Sao style, named after the famous poem Li Sao traditionally attributed to the earliest-named Chinese poet Ch'u Yuan, a nobleman banished by King Huai of Ch'u. --Philip Ward

RUAN Ji (210-263) [Juan Chi]
Note: a poet and musician who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. He was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. --Wikipedia
Poetry

PLOTINUS (204/5-270) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a major philosopher of the ancient world. In his philosophy there are the three principles: the One, the Intellect, and the Soul. --Wikipedia
One star: Enneads (c. 270)
Comment: A man of extreme mysticism and asceticism, Plotinus set as his aim the escape from our material world to soul, then to reason, then to God, which Plotinus saw as formless, matterless, pure existence. --Philip Ward

/\ A.D. 3rd Century
\/ A.D. 2nd Century

SUDRAKA Etext: The Online Books Page | Project Gutenberg Reference: Internet Broadway Data Base
Note: an Indian King. ... He has been identified as Abhira King Indranigupta --Wikipedia
One star: The Little Clay Cart (Mrichakatika)
Note: between the second century BC and the fifth century AD --Wikipedia
Comment: with an impoverished Brahman merchant as the hero and a courtesan as the heroine, is the standard dramatic example of the Indian secular romance. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

One star: Lotus Sutra (Saddharma Pundarika Sutra, c. 200) Etext: Sacred Texts
Note: the basis on which the Tiantai and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established --Wikipedia
Comment: One of the most influential of all Mahayana texts throughout East Asia. --A Guide to Oriental Classics
Comment: Buddha is here no longer the ascetic of history who preached for forty years. He is an eternal being, omniscient and omnipresent, and the setting in which he gives his discourse is uniquely awe-inspiring. --Philip Ward

SEXTUS Empiricus (c. 160-210) Etext: The Online Books Page | George MacDonald Ross fan site
Note: a physician and philosopher, and has been variously reported to have lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens. His philosophical work is the most complete surviving account of ancient Greek and Roman skepticism. --Wikipedia
Outlines of Pyrrhonism (Pyrrhoneioi hypotyposeis)
Comment: Classic statement of philosophical scepticism. --Raphael and McLeish

TERTULLIAN (c. 160-c. 225) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Roger Pearse fan site
Note: perhaps most famous for being the oldest extant Latin writer to use the term Trinity (Latin, trinitas), and giving the oldest extant formal exposition of a Trinitarian theology. --Wikipedia
De Carne Christi
Note: a polemical work by Tertullian against the Gnostic Docetism of Marcion, Apelles, Valentinus and Alexander. It purports that the body of Christ was a real human body, taken from the virginal body of Mary, but not by way of human procreation. --Wikipedia

Gospel of Truth (c. 140 to 180) Etext: The Gnostic Society Library Criticism: post
Note: one of the Gnostic texts from the New Testament apocrypha found in the Nag Hammadi codices --Wikipedia

Mahasatipatthana Sutta Etext: Access to Insight Humor: Piraro comic strip
Note: The Satipatthana Sutta (...The Discourse on the Establishing of Mindfulness) and the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Mindfulness) are two of the most important and widely studied discourses in the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. --Wikipedia
Comment: has long been a primary Theravada text on the most essential of the Buddhist practices--meditation. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

ILANGO Adigal (A.D. 2nd Century)
Note: a Malayalam/Tamil poet and a Jain monk ... . His name is a pseudonym meaning 'Venerable Prince'. --Wikipedia
Silappatikaram
Comment: The verse epic tells of the handsome young merchant Kovalan, his wife Kannaki, and his mistress Madhavi, whose gift of music leans heavily on Prince Ilango's intimate knowledge of early Indian classical music. --Philip Ward

VATSYAYANA Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Hindu philosopher in the Vedic tradition who is believed to have lived during 4th to 3rd centuries BCE in India. --Wikipedia
Kama Sutra (A.D. 2nd Century)
Note: Historians attribute Kamasutra to be composed between 400 BCE and 200 CE. John Keay says that the Kama Sutra is a compendium that was collected into its present form in the 2nd century CE. --Wikipedia
Comment: Vatsyayana states that, although sexual delights are not to be considered a chief end of existence, they must be considered a necessary part of existence. --Philip Ward

Infinite Life Sutra (Longer Sukhavativyuha Sutra, 1st and 2nd Centuries) Etext: Sacred Texts
Note: a Mahayana Buddhist sutra, and the primary text of Pure Land Buddhism. --Wikipedia
and
Amitabha Sutra (Shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutra, 100) Etext: Sacred Texts
Note: a popular colloquial name for the Shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutra. ... a Mahayana Buddhist text... it is one of the primary sutras recited and upheld in the Pure Land Buddhist schools. --Wikipedia
Comment: The longer and shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutras concern the vision of Amitabha Buddha's 'Land of Bliss' (Sukhavati), the Western Paradise. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

Srimaladevi Simhanada Sutra Etext: Hermitic Source
Note: one of the main early Mahayana Buddhist texts that teaches the doctrines of Tathagatagarbha and the One Vehicle (Skt. ekayana), through the words of the Indian queen Srimala. --Wikipedia
Comment: 'The Lions Roar of Queen Srimala' is a basic Mahayana sutra containing many of the common Mahayana teachings, but devoted especially to the notion of the Tathagatagarbha or 'Embryo of the Tathagata'--Buddhism's most compelling metaphor for the immanence of absolute truth. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

Prajnaparamita (c. 100 B.C.-A.D. 400) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: The Prajnaparamita sutras suggest that all things including oneself, appear as thoughtforms (conceptual constructs). --Wikipedia
Comment: The Buddhist texts which deal with the 'Perfection of Wisdom' (Prajnaparamita) are among the earliest of Mahayana scriptures. They are particularly associated with Nagarjuna, one of India's greatest thinkers and founder of the Madhyamika or 'Middle Way' tradition. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

GALEN (c. 129-c. 200/c. 216) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a prominent Greek-speaking Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity --Wikipedia
One star: On the Natural Faculties (De Facultatibus Naturalibus)
Comment: Galen was the greatest systematizer of physiological and medical knowledge that the world had yet seen. --V. J. McGill
Comment: ...he has been called the first experimental physiologist, he made significant contributions to the previously neglected science of anatomy, and his encyclopedic treatises preserved much of the classical knowledge of medicine through the Dark Ages of Europe. --Robert B. Downs
On the Humours

APULEIUS (c. 125-c. 180) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Latin-language prose writer. He was from Madaurus (now M'Daourouch, Algeria). --Wikipedia
One star: The Golden Ass (Metamorphoses, 158/9 or 170s?)
Comment: This, the best novel surviving from Roman Africa, tells the story of Lucius, a Greek who visits Thessaly hoping to learn something of the province's notorious magical properties. --Philip Ward

MARCUS AURELIUS (121-180) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive Criticism: post
Note: a Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. ... also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. --Wikipedia
Three stars: Meditations (Ta eis heauton, c. 167)
Comment: He realizes the tragic triviality of human affairs in the incalculable vastness of time and space, but on the positive side accepts the need to act rationally both as a man and as an Emperor, in pursuit of short-term and medium-term goals. --Philip Ward
Comment: "I wonder if I might call your attention to an observation of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius? He said 'Does aught befall you? It is good. It is part of the destiny of the Universe ordained for you from the beginning. All that befalls you is part of the great web.'" I breathed a bit stertorously. "He said that, did he?" "Yes, sir." "Well, you can tell him from me, he's an ass." --Bertie Wooster

LUCIAN (120-190) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Lionel Casson selected satires | Theatre History on Dialogues
Note: a rhetorician and satirist who wrote in the Greek language. He is noted for his witty and scoffing nature. --Wikipedia
Two stars: True History (Verae historiae)
Comment: takes us on the kind of journey we we associate with Odysseus or Jason and the Argonauts and turns it into the adventures of a Greek Baron Munchausen. --Michael Dirda
Comment: probably his most sustained satire is the parody of Herodotus... --Philip Ward
One star: Philosophies for Sale or Sale of Creeds (Vitarum auctio
One star: Charon or The Inspectors (Charon sive Contemplantes)
One star: The Dead Come to Life or The Fisherman (Revivescentes sive Piscator)
One star: Lucius or The Ass (Asinus)
Comment: a picaresque and sometimes bawdy tale about a young man transformed into a donkey by witchcraft. --Michael Dirda
One star: Alexander the False Prophet (Alexander)
How to Write History (Quomodo Historia conscribenda sit)
One star: Dialogues of the Dead (Dialogi Mortuorum)
Comment: the characters complain about the boring society of Hades. --Michael Dirda
One star: Dialogues of the Sea-Gods (Dialogi Marini)
Two stars: Dialogues of the Gods (Dialogi Deorum)
Comment: Jupiter, like a tired executive, patiently explains Ganymede's new duties as a cup-bearer, though the young shepherd cannot quite grasp why he has to sleep with the ruler of the universe. --Michael Dirda
One star: Dialogues of the Courtesans ( Dialogi Meretricii)
Comment: old whores discuss sex, passion, jealousy, and money with younger women new to the game. --Michael Dirda

PAUSANIAS (c. 110-180) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. --Wikipedia
Description of Greece (Hellados Periegeseos)
Comment: (himself a Lydian) traveled widely in southern and central Greece, to judge by his writings, but little in the north or the islands. --Philip Ward

/\ A.D. 2nd Century
\/ A.D. 1st Century

PTOLEMY (c. 90-c. 168) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Greco-Roman writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. --Wikipedia
One star: Almagest
Comment: Ptolemy's efforts, therefore, are always directed to finding combinations of uniform circular movements, which will produce the appearances that we actually observe. --Peter Wolff
- (G. J. Toomer, translation, 1984)
Geography
Comment: Oddly, Ptolemy's geography began to exert a kind of dominance at almost the same time that, thanks to Copernicus and others, his cosmology began to decline in influence. --Alan Jacobs
Comment: ...Ptolemy set himself the extremely ambitious task of describing and mapping the then known world. The book which resulted remained the standard work in its field for fourteen centuries, until its theories were disproved by Columbus' discovery of America and the ensuing great Age of Navigation. --Robert B. Downs

ARRIAN (c. 86-c. 160) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman (ethnic Greek) historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the 2nd-century Roman period. --Wikipedia
Campaigns of Alexander (Anabasis Alexandri)
Comment: Arrian took the title of his history of Alexander the Great, 'Anabasis', from the work of Xenophon. But Xenophon's 'March Up-Country' was a parochial affair indeed compared with Alexander's extraordinary adventures... --Philip Ward

SUETONIUS (c. 69–after 122) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire. --Wikipedia
One star: The Twelve Caesars (De Vita Caesarum, 121)
Comment: If there are so many scandals in 'The Twelve Caesars', it is perhaps merely a reflection of the truth; there is no doubt that few Roman historians cite conflicting evidence without bias, as Suetonius often does. --Philip Ward

Three stars: Bible (1000 B.C.-c. A.D. 68) Etext: NET Bible | Bible Gateway | The Unbound Bible Reference: Biblia Clerus | Review of Biblical Literature | Early Church Fathers | Early Christian Writings | Early Jewish Writings | see The Talmud Criticism: Luke Timothy Johnson essay | Paul M. Blowers review
Note: a canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism as well as in Christianity. The term Bible is shared between the two religions, although the contents of each of their collections of canonical texts is not the same. Different religious groups include different books within their canons, in different orders, and sometimes divide or combine books, or incorporate additional material into canonical books. --Wikipedia
Comment: The Bible deals with the whole of human life as imbued with religion: mating and begetting, war and work, historical events and communal acts. In the Bible, domestic, ethical, and political activity--as well as religious worship--express and embody the service and imitation of God. --Seymour Cain
Comment: The Bible remains the central form of transmission of the Western heritage, and is the foundation of our moral standards--to my mind far more important than our laws. --D. Quinn Mills
Bible: Old Testament Reference: Wikipedia entry Criticism: David Plotz weblog
Comment: The Old Testament is the Christian name for the Jewish sacred scriptures. It constitutes the complete Jewish Bible and the first part of the Christian Bible. --Seymour Cain
Bible: Old Testament: Pentateuch
Note: The Pentateuch, also known as the Five Books of Moses, is the first part of the Hebrew Bible, consisting of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In Judaism, it is called the "Torah", and is the first part of the Tanakh, while in Christianity, it is the first part of the Old Testament. --Wikipedia
- (Robert Alter translation, 2004) Criticism: John Updike review | Judith Shulevitz review
Three stars: Genesis Criticism: Albert Keith Whitaker review essay
- (R. Crumb illustated version, 2009) Criticism: David Hajdu review
Three stars: Exodus
Comment: 1300 B.C.: God gives Ten Commandments to Israelites, making them His Chosen People and granting them eternal protection under divine law. Nothing bad ever happens to Jews again. --Jon Stewart, et al.
Three stars: Leviticus
Three stars: Numbers
Three stars: Deuteronomy
Bible: Old Testament: Historical books
Three stars: Joshua
Three stars: Judges
Three stars: Ruth
Three stars: I Samuel
Comment: There is, however, an ambiguity in the first book of Samuel on this whole question of theocracy versus monarchy. On the one hand, Israel is condemned for wanting a king and thus rejecting God. On the other hand, God Himself points out Saul as the man who is to be king. --Peter Wolff
Three stars: II Samuel
Three stars: I Kings
Three stars: II Kings
Three stars: I Chronicles
Bible: Old Testament: Wisdom books
Four stars: Job Criticism: G. K. Chesterton essay
Comment: It comes down to the fundamental level of acting in a way that, when multiplied into the collective behavior of all humanity, makes the planet a livable, comfortable place to be. --Moshe Safdie
Four stars: Psalms Reference: Jeffrey Tucker on numbering
- (Robert Alter translation, 2007) Criticism: Eliot Weinberger review | Gary A. Anderson review
(ICEL translation, 1994) Robert Alter review
Three stars: Proverbs
Four stars: Ecclesiastes Criticism: Kenneth Rexroth essay
Three stars: Song of Songs
Bible: Old Testament: Prophetic books
Three stars: Isaiah
Three stars: Jeremiah
Three stars: Ezekial
Three stars: Daniel
Three stars: Hosea
Three stars: Joel
Three stars: Jonah
Three stars: Micah
Three stars: Zechariah
Three stars: Malachi
Bible: Apocrypha Reference: Wikipedia entry or Deuterocanonical books Reference: Wikipedia entry Criticism: David Klinghoffer essay
Comment: Other books were included in the Greek translation but were not recognized as sacred scriptures in the official Hebrew text. These writings were accepted as sacred by the early Christian Church. Protestant Bibles follow the Hebrew canon ... . Protestants call these works 'apocryphal' or spurious; Roman Catholics consider them as 'deuterocanonical' (a secondary canon) and include them in the Bible. --Seymour Cain
Three stars: Ecclesiaticus
Three stars: Tobit
Three stars: Wisdom of Solomon
Bible: New Testament Etext: Wescott-Hort Greek N.T. Reference: Wikipedia entry Criticism: Dale Tuggy weblog - Trinities [see Jesus Reference: Wikipedia entry]
Comment: The early Christian Church distinguished between the old covenant, or testament, made through Moses, and the new covenant, or testament, made through Christ. Hence came the names Old Testament, for the ancient scriptures, and New Testament, for the Gospels and other Christian scriptures. --Seymour Cain
Dates shown for New Testament books, below, are based on Redating the New Testament (2000), by John A. T. Robinson, Ch. XI Conclusions and Corollaries. --ed.
Bible: New Testament: Gospels Criticism: Adam Kirsch review | Helen Hull Hitchcock interview
Note: A gospel is an account describing the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. The most widely known examples are the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John --Wikipedia
Bible: New Testament: Synoptic Gospels Reference: A Synoptic Gospels Primer
Note: The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to specifically as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct. --Wikipedia
Three stars: Matthew (c. 40-c. 60) Criticism: Chris Faatz review | Thomas Aquinas essay
Comment: Matthew consistently emphasizes Jesus' role as the successor of Moses--the new Torah or Revelation through Christ--and the Church as the new Israel. Some interpreters, finding that the book may be divided into five groups of sayings, hazard the guess that Matthew may have intended to write a new Pentateuch. --Seymour Cain
Luke
   Four stars: Gospel (c. 57-c. 62)
   Three stars: Acts (c. 57-c. 62) Criticism: Karl Keating essay
Bible: New Testament: Epistles (Letters)
Paul the Apostle (c. 5-c. 67) Reference: Benedict XVI homily Criticism: Gary A. Anderson review | Mark Shea essay | Kenneth L. Woodward review | Luke Timothy Johnson review
Note: an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age. --Wikipedia
Comment: A Saul turning into Paul is neither a rarity nor a miracle --Eric Hoffer
[see Pauline epistles Reference: Wikipedia entry]
   Four stars: I Corinthians (55)
   Four stars: II Corinthians (56)
   Three stars: Romans (57)
Comment: the New Law takes better account of man's weaknesses. Man failed continually to obey the Old Law, because of his sinfulness. The punisment of sin being death, man was condemned to death as long as God judged him by the Old Law. With the coming of the New Law, man was freed from the Old Law and hence also from death. Man can obey the New Law; he need only love God. --Peter Wolff
Bible: translations
- (Vulgate, 384-c. 405) Etext: Gutenberg Bible
Note: a late 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible. It was largely the work of St. Jerome --Wikipedia
- (Tyndale Bible, 1530-1534) Etext: Wesley Center Criticism: The Economist review
Note: generally refers to the body of biblical translations by William Tyndale. Tyndale’s Bible is credited with being the first English translation to work directly from Hebrew and Greek texts. Furthermore it was the first English biblical translation that was mass-produced as a result of new advances in the art of printing. --Wikipedia
- (Douay–Rheims Bible, 1582, 1609, 1610; Challoner revision 1749, 1750, 1752) Etext: Douay-Rheims Bible + Challoner Notes
Note: a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. --Wikipedia
- (King James Version, 1611; Standard text, 1769) Etext: King James Bible Online Criticism: Paul Gleason review | Christopher Hitchens review
Note: ...King James I convened the Hampton Court Conference where a new English version was conceived in response to the perceived problems of the earlier translations as detected by the Puritans, a faction within the Church of England. --Wikipedia
Comment: interwoven with the texture of our speech, and remains a supreme beacon for the spiritual and moral life of mankind. --Walter Jackson Bate
- (Revised Version, 1881, 1885) Etext: Bible Hub
Note: a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version of 1611. It was the first and remains the only officially authorized and recognized revision of the King James Bible. --Wikipedia
- (Revised Standard Version 1946, 1952, 1957) Etext: University of Michigan
Note: a revision of the American Standard Version (ASV) authorized by the copyright holder. --Wikipedia
- (New English Bible, 1961, 1970) Criticism: Kenneth Rexroth review
Note: a translation of the Bible into modern English directly from the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts (and from Latin for 2 Esdras in the Apocrypha). --Wikipedia
- (International Standard Version, 1998) Etext: ISV
Note: The translation aims to be central between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation, a philosophy the ISV translation team call "literal-idiomatic" --Wikipedia
- (English Standard Version, 2001) Etext: ESV Bible
Note: a revision of the 1971 edition of the Revised Standard Version. The translators' stated purpose was to follow an "essentially literal" translation philosophy. --Wikipedia

PLINY the Younger (61-c. 113) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. ... Pliny wrote hundreds of letters, many of which still survive, that are regarded as a historical source for the time period. --Wikipedia
Letters (Epistulae, c. 99-109)
Comment: were written for publication, the first 247 appearing in print during his own lifetime. --Philip Ward

JUVENAL (c. 60-c. 140) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Roger Kimball essay
Note: a Roman poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD --Wikipedia
Comment: like most satirists he was somewhat discreet about his own private circumstances... --Philip Ward
Two stars: Satires (100-140)
Comment: Juvenal's worth is clearly demonstrated by his vitriolic diatribes on contemporary Rome, never equaled even by Johnson's Vanity of Human Wishes or Swift's acid pamphlets. --Philip Ward

EPICTETUS (c. 60-c.138) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive
Note: a Greek sage and Stoic philosopher. --Wikipedia
Two stars: Discourses
Comment: argues against concentrating on the externals of life (such as riches, luxurious beds, or too much food) in favour of austerity and economy, modesty, and a tranquil mind undisturbed by fear, envy or hatred. --Philip Ward
One star: Handbook or Encheiredion

NICOMACHUS (c. 60–c. 120) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive
Note: an important mathematician in the ancient world ... He was a Neopythagorean, who wrote about the mystical properties of numbers. --Wikipedia
Introduction to Arithmetic (Arithmetike eisagoge, c. 100)
Comment: Numbers here have to do with eternal harmonies, the music of the spheres. Numbers are not only signs of the eternal patterns, but they possess definite characteristics. ... Arithmetic is not merely a matter of detached, unimpassioned calculation, but an aesthetic, even a religious, search. --Peter Wolff

TACITUS (c. 56-after 117) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. --Wikipedia
One star: The Life of Agricola (De vita Iulii Agricolae, 98)
One star: Germania (De origine et situ Germanorum, 98)
Dialogues on Oratory (Dialogus de oratoribus, 102)
Comment: enquired about the causes of the decline in Roman oratory, and assessed its future prospects. --Philip Ward
Two stars: Histories (Historiae, 105) Criticism: Mary Beard review
Three stars: Annals (Ab excessu divi Augusti, 117)
Comment: We may call Tacitus a political historian; that is, a historian who primarily recorded political events rather than external affairs. --Peter Wolff

LONGINUS (1st or 3rd Century A.D.) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: sometimes referred to as Pseudo-Longinus because his real name is unknown, was a Greek teacher of rhetoric or a literary critic who may have lived in the 1st or 3rd century AD. --Wikipedia
One star: On the Sublime (Peri hypsous)
Comment: 'Sublimity', in this unfinished work, has a meaning different from that understood today, but can be defined as that distinction and excellence of expression by which certain authors (and he names Homer and Plato, among others) have gained immortal fame. --Philip Ward

PLUTARCH (c. 45-120) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive Criticism: Roger Kimball essay
Note: a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist --Wikipedia
One star: Moralia (before 101)
Five stars: Parallel Lives (c. 101)
Comment: usually pairing a Greek with a Roman in the same field, such as generalship or historiography, and drawing particular attention to the character of his subjects, rather than to any objective statement of a career. --Philip Ward
Comment: Many readers may also prefer the more modern English of, say, Rex Warner to the older Dryden/Clough translation cited here. --Michael Dirda

MARTIAL (40-102/4) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Spanish poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula)... He is considered to be the creator of the modern epigram. --Wikipedia
One star: Epigrams (86-103) Criticism: Steve Coates review
Epitaphs (80-c. 104)
Poems (80-c. 104)

Pedanius DIOSCORIDES (c. 40-90) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist, the author of De Materia Medica—a 5-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years. --Wikipedia
De Materia Medica (50-70)

PETRONIUS (c. 27-66) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero. --Wikipedia
Two stars: Satyricon Criticism: Kenneth Rexroth review
Comment: Marvellous sendup of Homer's Odyssey; Petronius' heroes search hard and unavailingly for sexual utopias in the tumbling, rausous world of Nero's Rome. --Raphael and McLeish

LUCAN (39-65) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Cordoba), in the Hispania Baetica. Despite his short life, he is regarded as one of the outstanding figures of the Imperial Latin period. --Wikipedia
Comment: his major virtues are a hysterical vitality (compared by Graves to that other eccentric, Rudyard Kipling), vividness of epigram, and a command of the Latin language second to none (with its obverse fault, verbosity). --Philip Ward
One star: Civil War (Bellum Civile, or Pharsalia, 62-63)
(Matthew Fox translation, 2012) Criticism: Jane Wilson Joyce review

JOSEPHUS (37-c. 100) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: David Luhrssen review
Note: a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea --Wikipedia
The Jewish War (Phlauiou Iosepou historia Ioudaikou polemou pros Romaious biblia, c. 75)
Comment: Jewish history, until Masada, recounted in choice vocabulary and high literary style by ex-combatant Jewish turncoat. --Raphael and McLeish
Antiquities of the Jews (Ioudaike archaiologia, 93 or 94)
The Life of Flavius Josephus (Iosepou bios, c. 94-99)

QUINTILIAN (c. 35-c. 100) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing --Wikipedia
One star: The Institutes of Oratory (Institutio Oratoria, c. 95)

PERSIUS (34-62) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman poet and satirist of Etruscan origin. In his works, poems and satires, he shows a stoic wisdom and a strong criticism for the abuses of his contemporaries. --Wikipedia
Satires

WANG Chong (27-c. 100) [Wang Ch'ung] Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Chinese philosopher active during the Han Dynasty. He developed a rational, secular, naturalistic and mechanistic account of the world and of human beings and gave a materialistic explanation of the origin of the universe. --Wikipedia
Lunheng
Comment: pointed out whatever was wrong; in all his arguments he used a strict and thorough method, and paid special attention to meanings. Rejecting erroneous notions he came near the truth. Nor was he afraid of disagreeing with the worthies of old. --Philip Ward

PLINY the Elder (23-79) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian. --Wikipedia
Natural History (Naturalis Historia, c. 77)
Comment: a naturalist whose love of noting facts at second-hand (he claimed to have recorded 20,000 in his Natural History from 473 authors) was perverted by the credulity of medieval writers to a variety of superstitious dogmas. --Philip Ward

Kuruntokai (between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200) Etext: Project Maduri (Tamil)
Note: a classical Tamil poetic work, is the second book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. --Wikipedia
Comment: consists of poems in the genre of courtly love, called akam. --Philip Ward

/\ A.D. 1st Century
/\ A.D. 1st Millennium
\/ 1st Millennium B.C.
\/ 1st Century B.C.

SENECA the Younger (c. 4 B.C.-A.D. 65) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. --Wikipedia
Comment: In the Renaissance, no Latin author was more highly esteemed than Seneca; in modern times, few Latin authors have been more consistently damned. --T. S. Eliot
One star: Moral Essays (Dialogi)
Note: moral essays (ten of them traditionally called Dialogues)—on providence, steadfastness, the happy life, anger, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, gift-giving, forgiveness— --Amazon
Comment: They write and write their desiccat / ing learned la-di-da-di, / as if primum scribere, / deindre philosophari. --Friedrich Nietzsche
One star: Medea
Comment: [T]he five-act division of the modern European play is due to Seneca. --T. S. Eliot
One star: The Madness of Hercules (Hercules furens)
Moral Epistles to Lucilius (Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium, 64)
Comment: His significance lies in his personality, and in his philosophical writings: the moral essays and the moral letters which are the progenitor of the whole genre of brief essays we have from Bacon to Lamb and the leader-writers in 'The Times'. --Philip Ward
Quaestiones Naturales (63)

PHILO (c. 20 B.C.-c. A.D. 50) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Resource Pages for Biblical Studies
Note: a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, during the Roman Empire. Philo used philosophical allegory to attempt to fuse and harmonize Greek philosophy with Jewish philosophy. --Wikipedia
Allegorical Expositions of the Holy Laws (Legum Allegoriae)

Aulus Cornelius CELSUS (c. 25 B.C.-c. A.D. 50) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina... The De Medicina is a primary source on diet, pharmacy, surgery and related fields, and it is one of the best sources concerning medical knowledge in the Roman world. --Wikipedia
On Medicine (De Medicina)

Two stars: Tripitaka (29 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Sacred Texts Archive Reference: Access to Insight | Buddhist Scripture Information Retrieval Study: C. George Boeree fan site Criticism: post | [see Gautama Buddha Reference: Wikipedia entry]
Note: a Sanskrit word meaning Three Baskets. It is the traditional term used by Buddhist traditions to describe their various canons of scriptures. --Wikipedia
Comment: The [Pali] canon itself--the 'Three Baskets' (Tipitaka)--is a lengthy anthology of the Buddha's teaching in three parts: the Vinaya-pitaka, which consists of the rules of discipline for monks and nuns and narrations of the incidents which prompted the Buddha to declare those rules; the Sutta-pitaka, containing the doctrinal utterance of the Buddha; and the Abhidhamma-pitaka, a repository of scholastic analyses of the doctrines. --A Guide to Oriental Classics
Comment: The literature of Buddhism is vast, and only the greatest classics are recommended for those who prefer not to become practicing Buddhists. --Philip Ward

OVID (43 B.C.-A.D. 17) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Roman poet ... Ovid is traditionally ranked alongside Virgil and Horace, his older contemporaries, as one of the three canonic poets of Latin literature --Wikipedia
Comment: To understand the world of medieval writers one must digest the world-view of Ovid, who taught that human history was a story of decline: from a Golden Age of harmony and peace, to a Silver Age of seasons, instead of eternal spring, to a Bronze Age when men practiced warfare--but heroically, without wickedness or treachery, to the Iron Age of Ovid's own time... --Philip Ward
One star: Ars amatoria ("The Art of Love" 1 B.C.) Etext: First Things (November 2004)
Comment: an elegiac poem in three books, of which the first two show how a man may win and retain a woman, and the third how a woman may win and hold a man. --Philip Ward
Heroides or Epistulae heroidum ("The Heroines" c. A.D. 4-8)
Two stars: The Metamorphoses ("Transformations" c. A.D. 8)
Comment: Permanence is an illusion or, if not an illusion, highly relative. But what changes goes on, and even if change can be full of pain and suffering, nothing is lost; there is only transformation, but transformation in which what has been continues in one form or another. --Anthony O'Hear
Comment: There are many translations of the Metamorphoses, including Arthur Golding's Renaissance version, named by Ezra Pound a 'the most beautiful book in the language.' ... Among modern versions, those of Mary Innes (in prose) and Rolfe Humphries and Charles Martin (in poetry) stand out. --Michael Dirda
Fasti ("The Festivals" c. A.D. 8)
Epistulae Ex Ponto ("Letters from the Black Sea" A.D. 10)

PROPERTIUS (c. 50-c. 16 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Perseus Digital Library | Poetry in Translation
Note: a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age. --Wikipedia
Elegies
Comment: cast aside many of the formulae then considered necessary to the elegy, forging new sounds and a new intensity for emotions no longer conventional. --Philip Ward

BHARTHARI
Note: 1st century BC --Wikipedia
One star: Satakatraya: Nitisataka, Srngarasataka, Vairagyasataka (Centuries of Worldly Life, Passion, and Renunciation)
Comment: lyric and epigrammatic verses expressive of life's conflicting concerns --A Guide to Oriental Classics

LIVY (59 B.C.-A.D. 17) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive
Note: a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people. --Wikipedia
One star: History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita, c. 9 B.C.)
Comment: The remains of Livy's vast history of Rome (originally in 142 volumes, now reduced to something like 700 pages) have, more than any other works, formed later views of the Roman character. --Raphael and McLeish

STRABO (c. 64 B.C.-c. A.D. 24) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive
Note: a Greek geographer, philosopher and historian. --Wikipedia
Geography (Geographica, c. A.D. 23)

HORACE (65-8 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. --Wikipedia
Two stars: Satires (I c. 35-34 B.C.; II 30 B.C.) Etext: I:VI, A. M. Juster translation, First Things (December 2007) Criticism: A. E. Stallings review
One star: Odes (I-III c. 23 B.C.; IV c. 11 B.C.) Criticism: D. S. Carne-Ross review
Comment: The themes of Horace are the brevity of life and the need for moderation in all things to make the ideal citizen. --Philip Ward
Comment: For a full flavor of Horace himself ... the best translation is that of Michie. --Raphael and McLeish
One star: Epistles (I c. 21 B.C.; II c. 11 B.C.)
Ars Poetica (c. 10-8 B.C.)
Comment: Storehouse of admonitions to writers and readers, vastly influential, especially in the Renaissance. --Raphael and McLeish

VIRGIL (70-19 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Institute for Learning Technologies Criticism: post
Note: an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. ... Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. --Wikipedia
Eclogues (37 B.C.)
Comment: a collection of short pastoral poems, which won a phenomenal success immediately upon publication. --Robert B. Downs
Georgics (29 B.C.) Criticism: Bruce S. Thompson review of translations
Comment: concerned with husbandry, designed to inspire a love of the Italian soil and of a virtuous life in rural surroundings. --Robert B. Downs
Five stars: Aeneid (19 B. C.) Criticism: Mark Shiffman essay
Comment: Virgil is celebrating Augustus and the founding of the Roman Empire and all the blessings it might bring; but in celebrating it in The Aeneid itself there is no hiding the dark side, for those with eyes to see. --Anthony O'Hear

VITRUVIUS (c. 80–70 B.C.-after c. 15 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Roman author, architect, and engineer during the 1st century BC --Wikipedia
Ten Books on Architecture (De architectura, c. 15 B.C.)
Comment: Fascinating contemporary analysis of Classical architecture, including discussion of materials for building and decorating, and even the design of catpults and 'tortoises' (early tanks). --Raphael and McLeish

CATULLUS (c. 84-c. 54 B. C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Rudy Negenborn fan site
Note: a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote in the neoteric style of poetry --Wikipedia
Two stars: Poems
Comment: infected Latin poetry with gaiety, informality, and idiosyncrasy. He is mocking, ironic and often malicious, but never dull. --Philip Ward
(David Mulroy translation 2002)
(Raphael and McLeish translation 1978)

SALLUST (86-c. 35 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: post
Note: a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from a provincial plebeian family. ... Sallust is the earliest known Roman historian with surviving works to his name --Wikipedia
One star: The Conspiracy of Catiline (c. 44 B.C.)
Comment: Vivid, stylized portrait of Catiline as a species of half-mad revolutionary mobster; much information on political and social conditions and attitudes as the republic rocked towards its end. --Raphael and McLeish
Jugurthine War (41 B.C.)

LUCRETIUS (c. 99-c. 55 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive
Note: a Roman poet and philosopher. --Wikipedia
Comment: He was a scientific materialist who did not believe in an afterlife, and provided many reasons why it is irrational to fear death. The point of life was pleasure, by which he meant not luxury and excitement but the purring detachment of a somewhat self-satisfied philosopher. --Kenneth Minogue
Five stars: On the Nature of Things (De rerum natura, c. 55)
Comment: Men, writes Lucretius, must be delivered from the bondage of religion (illustrated by the tale of Iphigeneia), and from fears of death and hell. Only the evidence of our senses is to be believed. --Philip Ward

Julius CAESAR (100-44 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive Criticism: post
Note: a Roman general, statesman, Consul, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. --Wikipedia
Comment: victor in the civil war, failed utterly to solve the political crisis that had destroyed peace and order in republican Rome. --Thomas R. Martin
One star: The Gallic War (Commentarii de Bello Gallico, 51 B.C.)
Comment: this book introduced me to the remarkable fact that history really did happen! --James Hodgson

One star: Milinda Panha (c. 100 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a Buddhist text ... It purports to record a dialogue in which the Indo-Greek king Menander I (Milinda in Pali) of Bactria, who reigned in the 2nd century BCE, poses questions on Buddhism to the sage Nagasena. --Wikipedia
Comment: One of the most important paracanonical prose works of Theravada Buddhism in the form of a dialogue between the Greek king Milinda (Menander) and the Buddhist monk Nagasena. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

/\ 1st Century B.C.
\/ 2nd Century B.C.

CICERO (106-43 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive Criticism: post
Note: a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist. ... is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. --Wikipedia
Comment: More than any other single figure, Cicero influenced the theory of both European and American politics--and through that theory, our political institutions. --Russell Kirk
One star: Against Gaius Verres I (In Verrem I, 70 B.C.)
Comment: The foundation of Cicero's reputation was his magnificent impeachment of Verres for maladministration in Sicily, forcing that rascally to go into exile. --Robert B. Downs
One star: Letters to Atticus (Epistulae ad Atticum, 68 B.C.-43 B.C.)
Comment: It is a strange fact that no contemporary history of the age of Cicero has survived. ... For this reason, the social and political history revealed in more than nine hundred extant letters from and to Cicero are of unique historical value. --Robert B. Downs
About Oratory (De Oratore, 55 B.C.)
On the Laws (De Legibus, 52 B.C.)
Comment: Cicero's aim is to present a constitution for an ideal state, based in general upon the law and custom of Rome, but including much original material derived from his own political ideas. --Robert B. Downs
About the Best Kind of Orators (De Optimo Genere Oratorum, 52 B.C.)
Comment: protrays the ideal orator, who is represented as a person of great versatility, capable of adapting himself to any case and audience... --Robert B. Downs
One star: On the Republic (De Republica, 51 B.C.)
Comment: The ideal state, Cicero concludes, is a mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy, because alone kingship may develop too easily into tyranny, aristocracy into plutocracy, and democracy into anarchial mob rule. --Robert B. Downs
About the Orator (Orator ad M. Brutum, 46 B.C.)
Comment: essentially a historical and comparative survey of Roman oratory, containing much valuable information about Cicero's predecessors, climaxed by an autobiographical account of Cicero's own training and development. --Robert B. Downs
Stoic Paradoxes (Paradoxa Stoicorum, 46 B.C.)
Questions debated at Tusculum (Tusculanae Quaestiones, 45 B.C.)
Comment: discusses the essentials of happiness, defined by Cicero as despising death, enduring affliction, alleviating grief, controlling other disconcerting emotions, and recognizing that for a happy life virtue is all-sufficient. --Robert B. Downs
About the Ends of Goods and Evils (De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, 45 B.C.)
Source of Lorem ipsum. --Wikipedia
Comment: a consideration of the fundamental question of ancient philosophy: What is the chief good, the final aim, of life? --Robert B. Downs
On the Nature of the Gods (De Natura Deorum, 45 B.C.)
On Divination (De Divinatione, 45 B.C.)
Comment: dealing with many forms of the art of foretelling future events--a discussion in which Cicero is careful to dissociate religion from superstition. --Robert B. Downs
On Fate (De Fato, 45 B.C.)
Comment: expounding the Stoic conception of fate and drawing a distinction between fatalism and determinism. --Robert B. Downs
One star: On the Nature of the Gods (De Natura Deorum, 45 B.C.)
Comment: setting forth in dialogue form the views of the Epicurean, Stoic, and the Academic schools. --Robert B. Downs
One star: Second Philippic (Philippica II, 44 B.C.)
On Duties (De Officiis, 44 B.C.)
Comment: a discussion of the moral obligations of men in society, and the place of wisdom, courage, justice and self-control. --Robert B. Downs
One star: On Friendship (Laelius de Amicitia, 44 B. C.)
Comment: discusses the bases of friendship, its qualities and obligations, and the problem of possibly conflicting loyalty, such as patriotism. --Robert B. Downs
Two stars: On Old Age (Cato Maior de Senectute, 43 B. C.)
Comment: praises advanced age and refutes the complaints generally made against it, holding that old age is not a subject for rejoicing but for philosophical acceptance... --Robert B. Downs

SIMA Qian (145-86 B.C.) [Ssu-ma Chien] Etext: The Online Books Page | Sacred Texts
Note: a Chinese historian of the Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography --Wikipedia
Two stars: Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji, 109-91 B.C.)
Comment: The masterpiece of Chinese histories, this monumental attempt to record the entire known past became a standard for future historians, and is notable for its combination of chronicles, tables, topical treatises, and biographies. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

TERENCE (195/185-159 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Julia Holloway fan site
Note: a playwright of the Roman Republic, of North African descent. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC. --Wikipedia
Comment: wrote for the aristocracy of Rome, taking his themes from the Greek New Comedy and greatly surpassing Plautus in his handling of plot and character. The regard in which his plays have always been held can be judged from the fact that all have survived from antiquity. --Philip Ward
One star: The Eunuch (Eunuchus, 161 B.C.)
One star: The Mother-in-Law (Hecyra, 165 B.C.)
One star: The Girl from Andros (Andria, 166 B.C.)

VALMIKI (c. 200 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature. He is the author of the epic Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself. --Wikipedia
Two stars: Ramayana
Comment: The earlier of the two major Indian epics and the best known in Indian art and legends, this work is primarily a court epic that exemplifies fundamental values and tensions in the classical tradition and forms the basis for many later religious texts. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

/\ 2nd Century B.C.
\/ 3rd Century B.C.

POLYBIUS (c. 204-122 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Ancient History Sourcebook
Note: a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period... Polybius is also renowned for his ideas concerning the separation of powers in government --Wikipedia
The Histories (after 146 B.C.)

Note: 213-210 B.C. [China] Burning of books and burying of scholars (fenshu kengru) --Wikipedia

CATO the Elder (234-149 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page Criticism: Plutarch life
Note: a Roman statesman ... known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. --Wikipedia
On Agriculture (De agri cultura, c. 160 B.C.) Etext: Holistic Agriculture Library

One star: Panchatantra (3rd Centrury B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Padmanabhuni | D. L. Ashliman fan site
Note: an ancient Indian inter-related collection of animal fables in verse and prose, in a frame story format. --Wikipedia
Comment: The 'Five Books' deal with the five categories of worldly wisdom and the art of practical government: both the winning and the losing of friends, war and peace, the loss of one's property, and the perils of acting too hastily. --Philip Ward
Comment: This collection of ancient Indian fables has exerted a greater influence on world literature than any other Indian work. It has been called the best collection of stories in the world. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

PLAUTUS (c. 254-184 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Theatre Database | Your Dictionary biography
Note: a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period. His comedies are the earliest surviving intact works in Latin literature. --Wikipedia
Comment: Though not an innovator, Plautus can be read today for an insight into the kind of production that one might have witnessed in the Roman theatres throughout Italy and the Empire. --Philip Ward
One star: The Rope (Rudens, c. 211 B.C.)
One star: The Swaggering Soldier (Miles Gloriosus, c. 205 B.C.)
One star: Amphitryon
One star: Pseudolus (c. 191 B.C.)

APOLLONIUS of Perga (c. 262–c. 190 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Eric Weisstein biography
Note: a Greek geometer and astronomer ... It was Apollonius who gave the ellipse, the parabola, and the hyperbola the names by which we know them. The hypothesis of eccentric orbits, or equivalently, deferent and epicycles, to explain the apparent motion of the planets and the varying speed of the Moon, is also attributed to him. --Wikipedia
Conics

HAN Fei (c. 280-233 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities | Humanistic Texts
Note: a Chinese philosopher who, along with Li Si, Gongsun Yang, Shen Dao and Shen Buhai, developed the doctrine of Legalism. --Wikipedia
One star: Complete Works or Basic Writings (Han Feizi)
Comment: The fullest theoretical statement and synthesis of the ancient school known as Legalism (fa-chia), which exerted a major influence on the Chinese political tradition. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

ARCHIMEDES (c. 287-c. 212 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page Reference: Chris Rorres fan site Criticism: post
Note: a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. ... Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. --Wikipedia
One star: On the Equilibrium of Planes
Comment: since mathematical analysis and proof are indispensable to Archimedes, it can also be said the Equilibrium of Planes is an example of mathematical physics. It is probably the earliest example. --Peter Wolff
One star: On Floating Bodies
Comment: All he asks is to grant him a single postulate stating the characteristics of water and other fluids. The rest is simply a matter of geometrical reasoning. --Peter Wolff
One star: On the Sphere and the Cylinder
Comment: His chief interest was in pure geometry, and he regarded his discovery of the ratio of the volume of a cylinder to that of a sphere inscribed in it as his greatest achievement. --Robert B. Downs
One star: The Method Treating of Mechanical Problems
One star: Measurement of a Circle (Kuklou metresis)
One star: The Sand-Reckoner (Archimedes Psammites)

APOLLONIUS of Rhodes (born c. 295 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page | Internet Classics Archive Reference: A Hellenistic Bibliography Criticism: post
Note: ...Greek poet and grammarian --Encyclopaedia Britannica | Once considered a mere imitator of Homer, and therefore a failure as a poet, his reputation has been enhanced by recent studies, with an emphasis on the special characteristics of Hellenistic poets as scholarly heirs of a long literary tradition writing at a unique time in history. --Wikipedia
Argonautica Humor: Amazon
Comment: believed fervently that the smart new belles-lettres was a diminishing of Greek writing, and undertook to prove the vitality--and the superiority--of the Homeric epic style by producing a new epic--on Jason's voyages in search of the Golden Fleece. --Philip Ward

One star: Dhammapada (c. 300 B.C.) Etext: The Online Books Page
Note: a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures. The original version of the Dhammapada is in the Khuddaka Nikaya, a division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. --Wikipedia
Comment: A short work of 423 verses dealing with central themes of Buddhism, perhaps the most popular and influential Theravada Buddhist text. --A Guide to Oriental Classics

/\ 3rd Century B.C.

\/ through 301 B.C. | A.D. 301-1100 /\



Revised February 14, 2014.

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